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USGS Geoscience Data Catalog

Arctic Ostracode Database

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Arctic Ostracode Database
Abstract:
The Arctic Ostracode Database provides species census data for about 100 species of benthic marine Ostracoda from modern surface and late Quaternary sediments from various parts of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas. Ostracodes are a microfossil group of bivalved Crustacea that secrete a calcareous shell commonly preserved in sediments in the Arctic region. Because many ostracode species have ecological limits controlled by temperature, salinity, oxygen, food and other factors, they can provide an important tool for paleoceanographic reconstruction in the Arctic. Some recent applications of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history include Briggs (1983), Reimnitz et al. (1983, 1992), McDougall et al. (1986), Clark et al.(1990), Pak et al. (1992), Brouwers et al. (1991), Cronin et al. (1993, 1994, 1995), Penney (1993a,b), Nurnberg et al. (1994), and Briggs and Mudie (in prep.).
Supplemental_Information:
All files are tab-delimited ASCII text, meaning that columns are separated by the tab character (ASCII 9). It should be straightforward to import these data into a spreadsheet or database application, provided the tab characters are preserved during the transfer across the network. To ensure that the tabs are preserved, load the files directly to your local disk, don't save them from a web browser's display window.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Cronin, Thomas M., Holtz, Thomas R., Brouwers, Elisabeth M., Briggs, William M., Whatley, Robin C., and Wood, Adrian, 1995, Arctic Ostracode Database: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -180.0
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 180.0
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 90.0
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 52.78
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 1995Currentness_Reference: publication date
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Entity Point (402)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.01. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.01. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Depth_System_Definition:
      Depth_Datum_Name: core top
      Depth_Resolution: 1
      Depth_Distance_Units: centimeters
      Depth_Encoding_Method: Attribute values
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Ostracode assemblage
    Numerical census of ostracode shells found in a sediment sample.
    Site
    Core or sample identifier (text following a variety of coding schemes)
    Top (cm)
    Depth in core of the top of the sampled interval (Source: Cronin et al. 1995)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:389
    Units:centimeters
    Resolution:1
    Bottom (cm)
    Depth in core of the bottom of the sampled interval (Source: Cronin et al. 1995)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:389
    Units:centimeters
    Resolution:1
    Latitude
    Latitude of the sample site
    ValueDefinition
    ? (literal question-mark)The value is not known
    Range of values
    Minimum:50.0
    Maximum:90.0
    Units:Decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.01
    Longitude
    Longitude of the sample site
    ValueDefinition
    ? (literal question-mark)The value is not known
    Range of values
    Minimum:-180.0
    Maximum:180.0
    Units:Decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.01
    Water depth (m)
    Depth of the sea floor at the sample site
    ValueDefinition
    ? (literal question-mark)The value is not known
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:4426
    Units:meters
    Resolution:1
    Total
    Total number of ostracode specimens counted
    Range of values
    Minimum:20
    Maximum:3175
    Units:individual specimens
    Resolution:1
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Each assemblage is further documented by the number of each of 101 taxa of ostracode specimens found in it. For each of these taxa, the label used in the data files is TaxonXXX where XXX is the number of the taxon, an arbitrary designation related to a more formal scientific reference in the file taxa.txt.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: taxa.txt

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    We are grateful to the shipboard scientists and crews of cruises who obtained Arctic cores and samples that provided the material for this database. We are also especially appreciative of the following colleagues who have freely and kindly provided material for ostracode study: Dr. J. T. Andrews, K. Foley, Prof. D. Fütterer, Dr. A. Grantz, Dr. S. Ishman, Dr. E. Reimnitz, Dr. P. Barnes, Dr. S. Lehman, Dr. A. Mackensen, Dr. D. Nurnberg, Dr. L. Polyak, Dr. R.Z. Poore, Dr. R. Spielhagen, Dr. R. Stein, Prof. J. Thiede, Dr. C. Vogt, Dr. J. Wollenburg. Much of the ostracode research was supported by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Change and Climate History Program, in collaboration with INSTAAR (University of Colorado) and the Institute of Earth Studies, Aberystwyth, (University College, Wales), and with assistance from the Alfred Wegener Institute (Bremerhaven) and GEOMAR (Kiel). Most of the taxonomy of this database was agreed upon at a conference on deep-sea Ostracoda held in summer, 1993, at the USGS in Reston, Virginia, sponsored by the USGS Global Change and Climate History Program.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Thomas M. Cronin
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Mail Stop 918, National Center
    12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
    Reston, VA
    USA

    (703) 648-6363 (voice)
    (703) 648-6688 (FAX)
    tcronin@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Ostracodes are a microfossil group of bivalved Crustacea that secrete a calcareous shell commonly preserved in sediments in the Arctic region. Because many ostracode species have ecological limits controlled by temperature, salinity, oxygen, food and other factors, they can provide an important tool for paleoceanographic reconstruction in the Arctic.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Briggs (1983) (source 1 of 29)
    Briggs, W.M., Jr., 1983, Ice rafting of ostracodes and other microfauna, Beaufort Sea, Alaska: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 96th Annual Meeting, page 532, The Geological Society of America.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Briggs and Mudie (in prep.) (source 2 of 29)
    Briggs, W.M., Jr., and Mudie, P., Ostracodes from the Axel Heiberg CESAR cores.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Brouwers et al. (1991) (source 3 of 29)
    Brouwers, E.M., Jorgensen, N.O., and Cronin, T.M., 1991, Climatic significance of the ostracode fauna from the Pliocene Kap Kobenhavn Formation, north Greenland: Micropaleontology 37(3): 245-267.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Clark et al. (1990) (source 4 of 29)
    Clark, D.L., Chern, L.A., Hogler, J.A., Mennicke, C.M., and Atkins, E.D., 1990, Late Neogene climate evolution of the central Arctic Ocean: Marine Geology 93: 69-94..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Cronin (1981) (source 5 of 29)
    Cronin, T.M., 1981, Paleoclimatic implications of Late Pleistocene marine ostracodes from the St. Lawrence Lowlands: Micropaleontology 27(4): 383-418..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains and refers to formal taxonomic treatment of Arctic ostracode taxa
    Cronin (1988) (source 6 of 29)
    Cronin, T.M., 1988, Paleozoogeography of postglacial Ostracoda from northeastern North America:.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    N.R. Gadd, ed., 1988, The Late Quaternary development of the Champlain Sea Basin: Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 35: 125-144..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains and refers to formal taxonomic treatment of Arctic ostracode taxa
    Cronin et al. (1991) (source 7 of 29)
    Cronin, T.M., Briggs, W.M. Jr., Brouwers, E.M., Whatley, R.C., Wood, A., and Cotton, M.A., 1991, Modern Arctic podocopid ostracode database: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 91-385.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Described a Modern Arctic Ostracode Database (MAOD) that included mostly shallow water samples from four repository laboratories: Aberystwyth (Institute of Earth Studies, University College Wales, R.C. Whatley and A. Wood), Boulder, Colorado (INSTAAR, University of Colorado, W.M. Briggs, Jr.), Denver, Colorado (U.S. Geological Survey, E.M. Brouwers), Reston, Virginia (U.S. Geological Survey, T.M. Cronin). MAOD gave the longitude, latitude, water depth of the samples and the repository for each. Most of the shallow water samples from MAOD containing more than 20 individual specimens of ostracodes are included in this modern sample database (several sites from latitudes below 50°N were excluded); taxonomy for a few species was updated and a few typographical errors were corrected.
    Cronin et al. (1993) (source 8 of 29)
    Cronin, T.M., Whatley, R., Wood, A., Tsukagoshi, A., Ikeya, N., Brouwers, E.M., and Briggs, W., Jr., 1993, Evidence for elevated mid-Pliocene temperatures in the Arctic Ocean based on marine Ostracoda: Paleoceanography 8, 161-173..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Cronin et al. (1994) (source 9 of 29)
    Cronin, T.M., Holtz, T.R., Jr., and Whatley, R.C., 1994, Quaternary paleoceanography of the deep Arctic Ocean based on quantitative analysis of Ostracoda: Marine Geology 119, 305-332..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Provided species census data from 43 coretop samples obtained during the 1991 cruise of the Polarstern to the Arctic Ocean. A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Cronin et al. (1995) (source 10 of 29)
    Cronin, T.M., Holtz, T.R., Jr., Stein, R., Spielhagen, R., Fütterer, D., and Wollenburg, J., 1995, Late Quaternary paleoceanography of the Eurasian Basin, Arctic Ocean: Paleoceanography 10(2): 259-281..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Provided additional coretop ostracode census data from other deep water regions of the Arctic and the adjacent Nordic Seas obtained during several Polarstern and Meteor cruises and the 1992 Polar Star cruise to the Northwind Ridge region, Canada Basin. Describes the Modern Analog Technique of quantitative analyses A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Elofson (1941) (source 11 of 29)
    Elofson, O., 1941, Zur kenntnis der marinen Ostracoden Schwedens, mit besonderer berucksichtigung des skagerrads: Zoologiska Bidrag fran Uppsala 19, 215-534..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains and refers to formal taxonomic treatment of Arctic ostracode taxa
    Fütterer (1992) (source 12 of 29)
    Fütterer, D. (ed.), 1992, Arctic'91: The expedition ARK-VIII/3 of RV "Polarstern" in 1991: Berichte zur Polarforschung 107, 1-267..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Station data for 43 coretop samples obtained during the 1991 cruise of the Polarstern to the Arctic Ocean
    Fütterer (1994) (source 13 of 29)
    Fütterer, D. (ed.), 1994, The expedition ARCTIC '93 Leg ARK IX/4 of RV "Polarstern" 1993: Berichte zur Polarforschung 149: 1-244..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Surface sample data from the 1993 Polarstern cruise to the Barents and Laptev Seas
    Hartmann (1992) (source 14 of 29)
    Hartmann, G, 1992, Zur Kenntnis der rezenten und subfossilen Ostracoden des Liefdefjords (Nordspitzbergen, Svalbard).i.teil. Mit einer tabelle subfossil nachgewiesener Foraminiferen: Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 89, 181-225..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains and refers to formal taxonomic treatment of Arctic ostracode taxa
    Joy and Clark (1977) (source 15 of 29)
    Joy, J.A., and Clark, D.L., 1977, The distribution, ecology and systematics of the benthic Ostracoda of the central Arctic Ocean: Micropaleontology 23, 129-154..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains and refers to formal taxonomic treatment of Arctic ostracode taxa
    McDougall et al. (1986) (source 16 of 29)
    McDougall, K., Brouwers, E.M., and Smith, P., 1986, Micropaleontology and sedimentology of the PB borehole series, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1598.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Neale and Howe (1975) (source 17 of 29)
    Neale, J.W., and Howe, H.V., 1975, The marine Ostracoda of Russian Harbour, Novaya Zemlya and other high latitude faunas: Bulletin of American Paleontology 65, 381-431..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains and refers to formal taxonomic treatment of Arctic ostracode taxa
    Nurnberg et al. (1994) (source 18 of 29)
    Nurnberg, D., Wollenburg, I., Dethleff, D., Eicken, H., Kassens, H., Letzig, T., Reimnitz, E., and Thiede, J., 1994, Sediments in Arctic sea ice: implications for entrainment, transport and release: Marine Geology 119: 185-214..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Pak et al. (1992) (source 19 of 29)
    Pak, D.K., Clark, D.L., and Blasco, S.M., 1992, Late Pleistocene stratigraphy and micropaleontology of a part of the Eurasian Basin (=Fram Basin), central Arctic Ocean: Marine Micropaleontology 20: 1-22..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Penney (1989) (source 20 of 29)
    Penney, D.N., 1989, Recent shallow marine Ostracoda of the Ikerssuak (Bredefjord) district, Southwest Greenland: Journal of Micropalaeontology 8, 55-75..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains and refers to formal taxonomic treatment of Arctic ostracode taxa
    Penney (1993a) (source 21 of 29)
    Penney, D.N., 1993, Late Pliocene to early Pleistocene ostracode stratigraphy and paleoclimate of the Lodin Elv and Kap Kobenhavn formations, East Greenland: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 101, 49-66..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Penney (1993b) (source 22 of 29)
    Penney, D.N., 1993, Northern North Sea benthic Ostracoda: modern distribution, palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental significance: The Holocene 3, 241-254..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Reimnitz et al. (1983) (source 23 of 29)
    Reimnitz, E., McCormick, M., McDougall, K., and Brouwers, E.M., 1983, Sediment export by ice rafting from a coastal polynya, Arctic Alaska, U.S.A.: Arctic and Alpine Research 25, 83-98..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Reimnitz et al. (1992) (source 24 of 29)
    Reimnitz, E., Marincovich, L., McCormick, M., and Briggs, W.M., Jr., 1992, Suspension freezing of bottom sediment and biota in the Northwest Passage and implications for Arctic Ocean sedimentation: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 29: 693-703..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    A recent application of ostracodes to understanding Arctic Ocean history
    Sars (1866) (source 25 of 29)
    Sars, G.O., 1866, Oversigt af Norges marine Ostracoder: Vidensk. -Selsk. Forhandl. Christiania 17 (for 1865), 1-130..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains and refers to formal taxonomic treatment of Arctic ostracode taxa
    Sars (1922-28) (source 26 of 29)
    Sars, G.O., 1922-1928, An account of the Crustacea of Norway Volume IX, Ostracoda: Bergen Museum, Bergen, Norway.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains and refers to formal taxonomic treatment of Arctic ostracode taxa
    Whatley (1982) (source 27 of 29)
    Whatley, R.C., 1982, Littoral and sublittoral Ostracoda from Sisimiut, West Greenland:.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Fox, A.D., and Stroud, D.A., 1982, Report of the 1979 Greenland White-Fronted Goose Study Expedition to Equalunqmiut Nunat, Western Greenland: University of Wales Press.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains and refers to formal taxonomic treatment of Arctic ostracode taxa
    Whatley and Coles (1987) (source 28 of 29)
    Whatley, R.C., and Coles, G., 1987, The late Miocene to Quaternary Ostracoda of Leg 94, Deep Sea Drilling Project: Revista Espanola de Micropaleontologicia 19 (1), 33-97..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains and refers to formal taxonomic treatment of Arctic ostracode taxa
    Whatley and Eynon (1995) (source 29 of 29)
    Whatley, R.C., and Eynon, M., in press, Ostracoda from the Greenland Sea: Micropalaeontology.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains and refers to formal taxonomic treatment of Arctic ostracode taxa
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 1995 (process 1 of 1)
    Compilation of the sample data and faunal census data Data sources used in this process:
    • Cronin (1981)
    • Cronin (1988)
    • Cronin et al. (1991)
    • Elofson (1941)
    • Fütterer (1992)
    • Fütterer (1994)
    • Hartmann (1992)
    • Joy and Clark (1977)
    • Neale and Howe (1975)
    • Penney (1989)
    • Sars (1866)
    • Sars (1922-28)
    • Whatley (1982)
    • Whatley and Coles (1987)
    • Whatley and Eynon (1995)
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Cronin et al. (1994)
    • Cronin et al. (1995)
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Most of the 103 categories represent individual ostracode species; a few (i.e., Polycope) are genus-level categories, used because the taxonomy of a particular genus is not well understood. Category 100 represents "other", unidentified species. Category 101 includes ice- rafted ostracodes (IRO) representing shallow water species believed to be transported into deeper water sediments by Arctic Ocean sea- ice. Category 103 represents taxa from the Atlantic Ocean.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Station data are given in sources
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Core data are given in sources
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Water depths are not available for the following samples:
    Alaska 66
    S5-77-BS-29
    S5-77-BS-16
    S5-77-BS-18
    S5-77-BS-27
    Alpha-H #9
    Alpha-H #4
    Bart. LT 27 Hazel 8
    AW-EH-2
    Barnes 44-80
    Barnes 45-80
    Eluitkit Pass
    AW-R-1
    Thule, N. Sta.Bay (2)
    AW-CF
    
    Neither geographic location nor water depth is available for core Pl88-AR-BC22
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    The contributors to the Arctic Ostracode Database generally agree on the taxonomic identification of most Arctic ostracodes, although additional work is required in some groups such as Cytheropteron. Readers are referred to the following sources and the references therein for formal taxonomic treatment of Arctic taxa: Sars (1866, 1922-28), Elofson (1941), Neale and Howe (1975), Joy and Clark (1977), Cronin (1981; 1988), Whatley (1982), Penney (1989), Hartmann (1992), Whatley and Coles (1987), and Whatley and Eynon (1995).

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: None
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Peter N. Schweitzer
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Mail Stop 954, National Center
    12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
    Reston, VA
    USA

    (703) 648-6533 (voice)
    pschweitzer@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 05-Feb-2016
Metadata author:
Peter N. Schweitzer
U.S. Geological Survey
Collection manager, USGS Geoscience Data Clearinghouse, http://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/
Mail Stop 954, National Center
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, VA
USA

(703) 648-6533 (voice)
pschweitzer@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/metadata/other/prism-arctic-ostracod/metadata.faq.html>

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