Geologic map of the Battle Ground 7.5-minute quadrangle, Clarke County, Washington

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Frequently anticipated questions:

What does this data set describe?

Geologic map of the Battle Ground 7.5-minute quadrangle, Clarke County, Washington
This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits of the Battle Ground 7.5 minute quadrangle. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Howard, Keith A., 2002, Geologic map of the Battle Ground 7.5-minute quadrangle, Clarke County, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2395.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.625838
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.498880
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 45.875479
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 45.749522
  3. What does it look like? (JPEG)
    Reduced-size image of the entire map sheet, 350x400 pixels, 26k bytes. (PDF)
    Printable version of the entire map, 11.9MB.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 2002
    Publication date
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Complete chain
      • Label point
      • GT-polygon composed of chains
      • Point
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is Transverse Mercator.
      Projection parameters:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -123
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
      False_Easting: 500000
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.000032
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.000032
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is D_Clarke_1866.
      The ellipsoid used is Clarke 1866.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378206.4.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/294.978698.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Geologic units
    Geologic unit designation
    QaYoung alluvium (Holocene)
    QlLandslides and basalt talus (Holocene)
    QoaOlder alluvium (upper Pleistocene?)
    QfFine-grained catastrophic flood deposits (upper Pleistocene)
    QtTerrace deposits (upper Pleistocene)
    QbBasalt of Battle Ground (upper Pleistocene)
    QbsBasalt scoria
    QdGlacial drift (Pleistocene)
    QTtaAlluvial-fan member of Troutdale Formation (Pleistocene and/or Pliocene)
    QTtvVolcanic-clast member of the Troutdale Formation (Pleistocene or Pliocene)
    QTtqQuartzite-clast member of the Troutdale Formation (Pliocene)
    QTtfFine-grained member of the Troutdale Formation (Pliocene and Miocene?)
    QTtfsSand facies of the Troutdale Formation
    TsvSkamania Volcanics
    Linear structural geologic features
    Structural feature type (string of width )
    dome, certainlong axis of dome structure, well established by observation and inference
    f.a., syncline, concealedsynclinal fold axis, inferred
    f.a., syncline, certainsynclinal fold axis, observed

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Keith A. Howard
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

Why was the data set created?

This database and accompanying plot files depict the distribution of geologic materials and structures at a regional (1:24,000) scale. The report is intended to provide geologic information for the regional study of materials properties, earthquake shaking, landslide potential, mineral hazards, seismic velocity, and earthquake faults. In addition, the report contains new information and interpretations about the regional geologic history and framework. However, the regional scale of this report does not provide sufficient detail for site development purposes.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Mundorff (1964) (source 1 of 1)
    Mundorff, M.J., 1964, Geology and ground-water conditions of Clark County, Washington, with a description of a major alluvial aquifer along the Columbia River: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1600.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 48000
    Mundorff (1964) laid an excellent geologic foundation for this quadrangle in his description and geologic map of Clark County. The present more detailed map further subdivides some of the units he mapped and offers some reinterpretations.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    (process 1 of 3)
    Soil and vegetation hide many geologic features in the area, and suburban development hinders access behind the many roads. For the present study, observations from 21 days of field mapping were compared against logs, summaries, and interpretations of field-located water wells (Mundorff, 1964; Swanson and others, 1993) and supplemented by interpreting drillers logs of about 1,000 approximately located water wells. The resulting geologic-map interpretation relies on key outcrops, on geomorphic position of units, and on the well logs to indicate the projected surface positions of poorly exposed units. Several dozen well logs supplemented the field observations used to draw (vertically exaggerated) cross section A-A', for example.
    (process 2 of 3)
    This digital map publication, generated from new mapping by the author, shows the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the Battle Ground 7.5' quadrangle. Together with the accompanying geologic description pamphlet, it presents current knowledge of the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database identifies map units that are classified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source map limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller. The content and character of the digital publication, as well as methods of obtaining the digital files, are described below.
    The databases in this report were compiled in ARC/INFO, a commercial Geographic Information System by Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) in Redlands, California, with version 3.0 of the menu interface ALACARTE (Fitzgibbon and Wentworth, 1991; Fitzgibbon, 1991; Wentworth and Fitzgibbon, 1991). The files are in either GRID (ARC/INFO raster data) format or COVERAGE (ARC/INFO vector data) format. Coverages are stored in uncompressed ARC export format (ARC/INFO version 8.1.2 for Unix). ARC/INFO export files (files with the .e00 extension) can be converted into ARC/INFO coverages in ARC/INFO (see below) and can be read by some other Geographic Information Systems, such as MapInfo, via ArcLink and ESRI's ArcView (version 1.0 for Windows 3.1 to 3.11 is available for free from ESRI's web site: The digital compilation was done in version 8.1.2 of ARC/INFO for Unix.
    Several different coverages were generated during the construction of the Battle Ground quadrangle geologic map. The topographic base map remains as an image and then is converted to a grid, and is merged at the last step with the colored geology polygrids. The image was merged with the geology grid to give an apparent transparent color image of both combined. The raster geology grids were converted to vector coverages with ARC/INFO's gridline routine. Alacarte and some custom menus and AMLs (ARC Macro Language) were used to project, transform, edit, tag, and build lines, polygons, and points in the map. A digital layout or map collar was made with Adobe Illustrator. The plot AMLs run in ARC/INFO and call the coverages, grids, and Adobe Illustrator EPS files to make uncompressed PostScript files. Person who carried out this activity:
    Philip A Dinterman
    U.S. Geological Survey, GEO-WRG-NGM
    Mail Stop 975
    345 Middlefield Road
    Menlo Park, CA

    650-329-4902 (voice)
    650-329-4936 (FAX)
    Date: 05-Feb-2002 (process 3 of 3)
    Creation of original metadata record Person who carried out this activity:
    Karen L Wheeler
    U.S. Geological Survey, GEO-WRG-NGM
    Mail Stop 975
    345 Middlefield Road
    Menlo Park, CA

    650-329-4935 (voice)
    650-329-4936 (FAX)
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Unit identification and database field values were checked by a standard USGS review for publication. Geological review by R.C. Evarts and R.B. Waitt. Edited by J.L. Ziglar.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The base map for the digital compilation is a Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1:24,000-scale topographic map of the Battle Ground 7.5' quadrangle (1990), which has a 10-foot contour interval. The image inside the map neatline is georeferenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The horizontal positional accuracy and datum of the DRG matches the accuracy and datum of the source map. These base map/geology layers are digital images but no information other than location is attached to the lines. The base/geology maps are provided for reference only.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Most map contacts are approximate or inferred. Rock colors are designated using letters and numbers in the Munsell system. Geologic map units are defined by lithostratigraphic criteria (for instance the Skamania Volcanics) and in some cases also by allostratigraphic criteria where geomorphic surfaces help to define units (North American Commision on Stratigraphic Nomenclature, 1983). For example, depositional landforms help define the older alluvium unit and the alluvialfan member of the Troutdale Formation.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Uses of this digital geologic map should not violate the spatial resolution of the data. Although the digital form of the data removes the constraint imposed by the scale of a paper map, the detail and accuracy inherent in map scale are also present in the digital data. The fact that this database was edited for a scale of 1:24,000 means that higher resolution information is not present in the dataset. Plotting at scales larger than 1:24,000 will not yield greater real detail, although it may reveal fine-scale irregularities below the intended resolution of the database. Similarly, where this database is used in combination with other data of higher resolution, the resolution of the combined output will be limited by the lower resolution of these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Database Coordinator
    345 Middlefield Rd., M/S 975
    Menlo Park, CA

    650-329-4935 (voice)
    650-329-4936 (FAX)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? USGS Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2395
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Although this publication has been subjected to rigorous review and is substantially complete, the USGS reserves the right to revise the data pursuant to further analysis and review. Furthermore, it is released on condition that neither the USGS nor the United States Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from its authorized or unauthorized use.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 05-Feb-2016
Metadata author:
Peter N Schweitzer
USGS Midwest Area
Collection manager, USGS Geoscience Data Clearinghouse,
Mail Stop 954
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
Reston, VA

703-648-6533 (voice)
703-648-6252 (FAX)
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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