# Dust Deposition in Southern Nevada and California, 1984- 1989: Relations to climate, source area, and lithology

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### What does this data set describe?

Title:
Dust Deposition in Southern Nevada and California, 1984- 1989: Relations to climate, source area, and lithology
Abstract:
Dust samples taken annually for five years from 55 sites in southern Nevada and California provide an unparalleled source of information on modern rates of dust deposition, grain size, and mineralogical and chemical composition. The relations of modern dust to climatic factors, type and lithology of dust source, and regional wind patterns shed new light on the processes of dust entrainment and deposition.
A project to study modern dust deposition relative to soils in southern Nevada and California was initiated in 1984 under the auspices of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-78ET44802). The primary purpose of the dust-deposition project was to provide data on modern dust composition and influx rates to a computer model relating soil carbonate to paleoclimate. A secondary purpose was to provide data on dust influx rates at specific sites in the southern Great Basin and Mojave Desert where soil chronosequences were studied in support of tectonic and stratigraphic investigations for the Yucca Mountain Project. The initial 46 sampling sites, including one site with five traps, were established in 1984 and were supplemented by nine more sites in 1985 to provide dust data to soil studies by other investigators along the Elsinore Fault and in the Transverse Ranges of southern California.
1. How might this data set be cited?
Reheis, Marith C., and Kihl, Rolf, 1995, Dust Deposition in Southern Nevada and California, 1984- 1989: Relations to climate, source area, and lithology: Journal of Geophysical Research volume 100(D5), pages 8893-8918.

2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -118.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -114.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 38.25
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 32.50
3. What does it look like?
4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
Beginning_Date: 1984
Ending_Date: 1989
Currentness_Reference:
1984 was the first year dust traps were deployed for this study; 1989 was the last year in which dust samples described in this report were collected.
5. What is the general form of this data set?
6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
• Entity Point (101)
2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.01. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.01. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees.
7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
This data set contains 430 distinct attributes, some of which directly describe entities and some merely qualify the values of other attributes. Documenting these attributes using the detailed form of the Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata is possible in principle but cannot be carried out in a timely fashion.
In general the attributes describe two types of entities, dust samples collected from traps deployed in Southwestern Nevada and nearby California, and weather stations nearby the dust collection sites. These observations are coded in ASCII tables in which the rows typically refer to the entities and the columns typically refer to characteristics of those entities. Here is a list of attributes, sorted by the name of the file in which they appear, the column within the file, and giving the column heading that identifies the attribute.
 Core/meta/samples.txt  1  Trap sample id
Core/meta/samples.txt  2  Lab No. (GRL-)
Core/meta/samples.txt  3  Days out
Core/meta/samples.txt  4  Problem?
Core/meta/trapsite.txt  1  trap
Core/meta/trapsite.txt  2  latitude
Core/meta/trapsite.txt  3  longitude
Core/meta/trapsite.txt  4  elevation (m)
Core/meta/trapsite.txt  5  geographic area
Core/meta/trapsite.txt  6  transect (km)*
Core/meta/trapsite.txt  7  primary source source**
Core/meta/trapsite.txt  8  primary source lithology***
Core/meta/trapsite.txt  9  secondary source source**
Core/meta/trapsite.txt  10  secondary source lithology**
Core/raw/labdust.txt  1  Trap sample id
Core/raw/labdust.txt  2  Lab# (GRL-)
Core/raw/labdust.txt  3  Days out
Core/raw/labdust.txt  4  Organic carbon %
Core/raw/labdust.txt  5  Organic matter %
Core/raw/labdust.txt  6  %CaCO3 (total)
Core/raw/labdust.txt  7  %CaCO3 (OM-free)
Core/raw/labdust.txt  8  %salts (total)
Core/raw/labdust.txt  9  %salts (OM-free)
Core/raw/labdust.txt  10  %gypsum (total)
Core/raw/labdust.txt  11  %gypsum (OM-free)
Core/raw/labdust.txt  12  Mineral wt (g)**
Core/raw/labdust.txt  13  % <2mm
Core/raw/labdust.txt  14  sand % of <2mm fraction
Core/raw/labdust.txt  15  silt % of <2mm fraction
Core/raw/labdust.txt  16  clay % of <2mm fraction
Core/raw/labdust.txt  17  textural class
Core/raw/flux.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/flux.txt  2  CO3
Core/raw/flux.txt  3  salt
Core/raw/flux.txt  4  gypsum
Core/raw/flux.txt  5  min_wgt_Q
Core/raw/flux.txt  6  min_wgt
Core/raw/flux.txt  7  dustflux_Q
Core/raw/flux.txt  8  dustflux
Core/raw/flux.txt  9  CO3_flux_Q
Core/raw/flux.txt  10  CO3_flux
Core/raw/flux.txt  11  saltflux_Q
Core/raw/flux.txt  12  saltflux
Core/raw/flux.txt  13  gypsflux_Q
Core/raw/flux.txt  14  gypsflux
Core/raw/flux.txt  15  sandflux_Q
Core/raw/flux.txt  16  sandflux
Core/raw/flux.txt  17  siltflux_Q
Core/raw/flux.txt  18  siltflux
Core/raw/flux.txt  19  clayflux_Q
Core/raw/flux.txt  20  clayflux
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  2  CO3_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  3  salt_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  4  gypsum_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  5  min_wgt_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  6  min_wgt_sel_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  7  dustflux_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  8  dustflux_sel_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  9  CO3_flux_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  10  CO3_flux_sel_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  11  saltflux_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  12  saltflux_sel_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  13  gypsflux_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  14  gypsflux_sel_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  15  sandflux_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  16  sandflux_sel_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  17  siltflux_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  18  siltflux_sel_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  19  clayflux_avg
Core/raw/flux_avg.txt  20  clayflux_sel_avg
Core/raw/flux/CO3.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/flux/CO3.txt  2  1985
Core/raw/flux/CO3.txt  3  1986
Core/raw/flux/CO3.txt  4  1987
Core/raw/flux/CO3.txt  5  1988
Core/raw/flux/CO3.txt  6  1989
Core/raw/flux/CO3.txt  7  average
Core/raw/flux/CO3.txt  8  Selected average
Core/raw/flux/salt.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/flux/salt.txt  2  1985
Core/raw/flux/salt.txt  3  1986
Core/raw/flux/salt.txt  4  1987
Core/raw/flux/salt.txt  5  1988
Core/raw/flux/salt.txt  6  1989
Core/raw/flux/salt.txt  7  average
Core/raw/flux/salt.txt  8  Selected average
Core/raw/flux/gypsum.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/flux/gypsum.txt  2  1985
Core/raw/flux/gypsum.txt  3  1986
Core/raw/flux/gypsum.txt  4  1987
Core/raw/flux/gypsum.txt  5  1988
Core/raw/flux/gypsum.txt  6  1989
Core/raw/flux/gypsum.txt  7  average
Core/raw/flux/gypsum.txt  8  Selected average
Core/raw/flux/min_wgt.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/flux/min_wgt.txt  2  Q85
Core/raw/flux/min_wgt.txt  3  1985
Core/raw/flux/min_wgt.txt  4  Q86
Core/raw/flux/min_wgt.txt  5  1986
Core/raw/flux/min_wgt.txt  6  Q87
Core/raw/flux/min_wgt.txt  7  1987
Core/raw/flux/min_wgt.txt  8  Q88
Core/raw/flux/min_wgt.txt  9  1988
Core/raw/flux/min_wgt.txt  10  Q89
Core/raw/flux/min_wgt.txt  11  1989
Core/raw/flux/min_wgt.txt  12  average
Core/raw/flux/min_wgt.txt  13  Selected average
Core/raw/flux/CO3_flux.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/flux/CO3_flux.txt  2  Q85
Core/raw/flux/CO3_flux.txt  3  1985
Core/raw/flux/CO3_flux.txt  4  Q86
Core/raw/flux/CO3_flux.txt  5  1986
Core/raw/flux/CO3_flux.txt  6  Q87
Core/raw/flux/CO3_flux.txt  7  1987
Core/raw/flux/CO3_flux.txt  8  Q88
Core/raw/flux/CO3_flux.txt  9  1988
Core/raw/flux/CO3_flux.txt  10  Q89
Core/raw/flux/CO3_flux.txt  11  1989
Core/raw/flux/CO3_flux.txt  12  average
Core/raw/flux/CO3_flux.txt  13  Selected average
Core/raw/flux/saltflux.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/flux/saltflux.txt  2  Q85
Core/raw/flux/saltflux.txt  3  1985
Core/raw/flux/saltflux.txt  4  Q86
Core/raw/flux/saltflux.txt  5  1986
Core/raw/flux/saltflux.txt  6  Q87
Core/raw/flux/saltflux.txt  7  1987
Core/raw/flux/saltflux.txt  8  Q88
Core/raw/flux/saltflux.txt  9  1988
Core/raw/flux/saltflux.txt  10  Q89
Core/raw/flux/saltflux.txt  11  1989
Core/raw/flux/saltflux.txt  12  average
Core/raw/flux/saltflux.txt  13  Selected average
Core/raw/flux/gypsflux.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/flux/gypsflux.txt  2  Q85
Core/raw/flux/gypsflux.txt  3  1985
Core/raw/flux/gypsflux.txt  4  Q86
Core/raw/flux/gypsflux.txt  5  1986
Core/raw/flux/gypsflux.txt  6  Q87
Core/raw/flux/gypsflux.txt  7  1987
Core/raw/flux/gypsflux.txt  8  Q88
Core/raw/flux/gypsflux.txt  9  1988
Core/raw/flux/gypsflux.txt  10  Q89
Core/raw/flux/gypsflux.txt  11  1989
Core/raw/flux/gypsflux.txt  12  average
Core/raw/flux/gypsflux.txt  13  Selected average
Core/raw/flux/dustflux.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/flux/dustflux.txt  2  Q85
Core/raw/flux/dustflux.txt  3  1985
Core/raw/flux/dustflux.txt  4  Q86
Core/raw/flux/dustflux.txt  5  1986
Core/raw/flux/dustflux.txt  6  Q87
Core/raw/flux/dustflux.txt  7  1987
Core/raw/flux/dustflux.txt  8  Q88
Core/raw/flux/dustflux.txt  9  1988
Core/raw/flux/dustflux.txt  10  Q89
Core/raw/flux/dustflux.txt  11  1989
Core/raw/flux/dustflux.txt  12  average
Core/raw/flux/dustflux.txt  13  Selected average
Core/raw/flux/sandflux.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/flux/sandflux.txt  2  Q85
Core/raw/flux/sandflux.txt  3  1985
Core/raw/flux/sandflux.txt  4  Q86
Core/raw/flux/sandflux.txt  5  1986
Core/raw/flux/sandflux.txt  6  Q87
Core/raw/flux/sandflux.txt  7  1987
Core/raw/flux/sandflux.txt  8  Q88
Core/raw/flux/sandflux.txt  9  1988
Core/raw/flux/sandflux.txt  10  Q89
Core/raw/flux/sandflux.txt  11  1989
Core/raw/flux/sandflux.txt  12  average
Core/raw/flux/sandflux.txt  13  Selected average
Core/raw/flux/siltflux.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/flux/siltflux.txt  2  Q85
Core/raw/flux/siltflux.txt  3  1985
Core/raw/flux/siltflux.txt  4  Q86
Core/raw/flux/siltflux.txt  5  1986
Core/raw/flux/siltflux.txt  6  Q87
Core/raw/flux/siltflux.txt  7  1987
Core/raw/flux/siltflux.txt  8  Q88
Core/raw/flux/siltflux.txt  9  1988
Core/raw/flux/siltflux.txt  10  Q89
Core/raw/flux/siltflux.txt  11  1989
Core/raw/flux/siltflux.txt  12  average
Core/raw/flux/siltflux.txt  13  Selected average
Core/raw/flux/clayflux.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/flux/clayflux.txt  2  Q85
Core/raw/flux/clayflux.txt  3  1985
Core/raw/flux/clayflux.txt  4  Q86
Core/raw/flux/clayflux.txt  5  1986
Core/raw/flux/clayflux.txt  6  Q87
Core/raw/flux/clayflux.txt  7  1987
Core/raw/flux/clayflux.txt  8  Q88
Core/raw/flux/clayflux.txt  9  1988
Core/raw/flux/clayflux.txt  10  Q89
Core/raw/flux/clayflux.txt  11  1989
Core/raw/flux/clayflux.txt  12  average
Core/raw/flux/clayflux.txt  13  Selected average
Core/raw/minerals/claymin.txt  1  Sample no.
Core/raw/minerals/claymin.txt  2  Chlorite
Core/raw/minerals/claymin.txt  3  Kaolinite
Core/raw/minerals/claymin.txt  4  Mica
Core/raw/minerals/claymin.txt  5  Smectite
Core/raw/minerals/claymin.txt  6  Mixed-layer
Core/raw/minerals/claymin.txt  7  Quartz
Core/raw/minerals/claymin.txt  8  Other
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  1  Sample no.
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  2  Quartz
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  3  Anorthoclase
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  4  High-temp sanidine
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  5  High-temp albite
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  6  Anorthite
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  7  Orthoclase
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  8  Microcline
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  9  Low-temp albite
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  10  Muscovite + biotite
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  11  Pyroxene
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  12  Hornblende*
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  13  Dolomite
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  14  Calcite
Core/raw/minerals/sandmin.txt  15  Other
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  1  Sample no.
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  2  Quartz
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  3  Anorthoclase
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  4  High-temp sanidine
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  5  High-temp albite
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  6  Anorthite
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  7  Orthoclase
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  8  Microcline
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  9  Low-temp albite
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  10  Muscovite + biotite
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  11  Chlorite
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  12  Apatite
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  13  Pyroxene
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  14  Hornblende*
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  15  Dolomite
Core/raw/minerals/siltmin.txt  16  Other
Core/raw/minerals/combine.txt  1  combined sample id
Core/raw/minerals/combine.txt  2  component sample 1
Core/raw/minerals/combine.txt  3  component sample 2
Core/raw/minerals/combine.txt  4  component sample 3
Core/raw/minerals/combine.txt  5  component sample 4
Core/raw/minerals/combine.txt  6  component sample 5
Core/raw/minerals/combine.txt  7  component sample 6
Core/raw/chemistry/dusticp.txt  1  Traps
Core/raw/chemistry/dusticp.txt  2  Si
Core/raw/chemistry/dusticp.txt  3  Al
Core/raw/chemistry/dusticp.txt  4  Fe
Core/raw/chemistry/dusticp.txt  5  Mg
Core/raw/chemistry/dusticp.txt  6  Ca
Core/raw/chemistry/dusticp.txt  7  Na
Core/raw/chemistry/dusticp.txt  8  K
Core/raw/chemistry/dusticp.txt  9  Ti
Core/raw/chemistry/dusticp.txt  10  Mn
Core/raw/chemistry/dusticp.txt  11  Zr
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  1  Traps
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  2  raw SiO2
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  3  raw Al2O3
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  4  raw Fe2O3
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  5  raw MgO
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  6  raw CaO
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  7  raw Na2O
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  8  raw K2O
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  9  raw TiO2
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  10  raw MnO
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  11  raw ZrO2
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  12  norm SiO2
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  13  norm Al2O3
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  14  norm Fe2O3
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  15  norm MgO
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  16  norm CaO
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  17  norm Na2O
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  18  norm K2O
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  19  norm TiO2
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  20  norm MnO
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  21  norm ZrO2
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  22  Si/Zr02
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  23  Al/Zr02
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  24  Fe/Zr02
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  25  Mg/Zr02
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  26  Ca/Zr02
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  27  Na/Zr02
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  28  K/Zr02
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  29  Ti/Zr02
Core/raw/chemistry/dustox.txt  30  Mn/Zr02
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  1  Station
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  2  Group
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  3  Elevation
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  4  MAT
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  5  MAP
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  6  number of yrs<1961
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  7  MAT before 1961
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  8  number of years1961-90
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  9  MAT from 1961-90
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  10  number of yrs<1961
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  11  MAP before 1961
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  12  number of years1961-90
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  13  MAP from 1961-90
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  14  1961 MAT records 1961 through 1990
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  15  1962
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  16  1963
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  17  1964
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  18  1965
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  19  1966
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  20  1967
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  21  1968
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  22  1969
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  23  1970
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  24  1971
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  25  1972
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  26  1973
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  27  1974
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  28  1975
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  29  1976
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  30  1977
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  31  1978
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  32  1979
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  33  1980
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  34  1981
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  35  1982
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  36  1983
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  37  1984
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  38  1985
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  39  1986
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  40  1987
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  41  1988
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  42  1989
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  43  1990
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  44  1961 MAP records 1961 through 1990
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  45  1962
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  46  1963
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  47  1964
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  48  1965
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  49  1966
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  50  1967
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  51  1968
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  52  1969
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  53  1970
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  54  1971
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  55  1972
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  56  1973
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  57  1974
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  58  1975
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  59  1976
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  60  1977
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  61  1978
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  62  1979
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  63  1980
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  64  1981
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  65  1982
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  66  1983
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  67  1984
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  68  1985
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  69  1986
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  70  1987
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  71  1988
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  72  1989
Core/raw/climate/climreg.txt  73  1990
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  1  Station
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  2  Time interval
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  3  TJan
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  4  TFeb
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  5  TMar
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  6  TApr
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  7  TMay
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  8  TJun
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  9  TJul
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  10  TAug
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  11  TSep
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  12  TOct
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  13  TNov
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  14  TDec
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  15  Mean yearly temperature
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  16  PJan
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  17  PFeb
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  18  PMar
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  19  PApr
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  20  PMay
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  21  PJun
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  22  PJul
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  23  PAug
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  24  PSep
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  25  POct
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  26  PNov
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  27  PDec
Core/raw/climate/aveclim.txt  28  Annual total precipitation
Core/raw/climate/trapclim.txt  1  Trap
Core/raw/climate/trapclim.txt  2  Est MAT (+-1.3C)
Core/raw/climate/trapclim.txt  3  Est MAP (cm)
Core/raw/climate/trapclim.txt  4  s.e. MAP(cm)
Core/raw/climate/trapclim.txt  5  Quiring est. MAP (NTS)
Core/raw/climate/trapclim.txt  6  French est MAP (so NV)
Core/raw/climate/trapclim.txt  7  WS nearest
Core/raw/climate/trapclim.txt  8  WS Elevation (m)
Core/raw/climate/trapclim.txt  9  WS MAP (cm)
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  1  Station
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  2  State
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  3  Latitude
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  4  Longitude
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  5  Elevation (m)
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  6  Time interval
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  7  TJan
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  8  TFeb
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  9  TMar
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  10  TApr
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  11  TMay
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  12  TJun
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  13  TJul
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  14  TAug
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  15  TSep
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  16  TOct
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  17  TNov
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  18  TDec
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  19  Mean annual T
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  20  PJan
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  21  PFeb
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  22  PMar
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  23  PApr
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  24  PMay
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  25  PJun
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  26  PJul
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  27  PAug
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  28  PSep
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  29  POct
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  30  PNov
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  31  PDec
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  32  Total P
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  33  PNov-Apr
Core/raw/climate/climate.txt  34  PMay-Oct

Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:

### Who produced the data set?

1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
• Reheis, Marith C.
• Kihl, Rolf
2. Who also contributed to the data set?
Marith Reheis
Box 25046, MS 913
U.S. Geological Survey
Denver Federal Center
Denver, CO
USA

(303) 236-1270 (voice)
(303) 236-0214 (FAX)

### Why was the data set created?

The purpose of this research is to obtain data on the composition and deposition rate of eolian dust in southern Nevada and California from 1984 to 1989, and to relate these properties to controlling variables such as climate, lithology of local dust source, and type of source. Further work will relate modern dust to soil properties and compare modern rates of dust influx with long-term rates estimated from soils at selected sites.

### How was the data set created?

1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
NCDC 61-90 A CA (source 1 of 6)
National Climatic Data Center, 1992, California: Climatological Data Annual Summary.

Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Contribution:
Data used to calculate mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) at dust trap sites
NCDC 61-90 A NV (source 2 of 6)
National Climatic Data Center, 1992, Nevada: Climatological Data Annual Summary.

Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Contribution:
Data used to calculate mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) at dust trap sites
NCDC 61-90 M CA (source 3 of 6)
National Climatic Data Center, 1992, California: Monthly station normals of temperature, precipitation, and heating and cooling degree days 1961-1990: Climatography of the United States 81.

Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Contribution:
Data used to calculate mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) at dust trap sites
NCDC 61-90 M NV (source 4 of 6)
National Climatic Data Center, 1992, Nevada: Monthly station normals of temperature, precipitation, and heating and cooling degree days 1961-1990: Climatography of the United States 81.

Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Contribution:
Data used to calculate mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) at dust trap sites
DOC 51-60 CA (source 5 of 6)
U.S. Department of Commerce (Weather Bureau), 1964, California: Climatic summary of the United States-- Supplement for 1951 through 1960: Climatography of the United States 86-4.

Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Contribution:
Data used to calculate mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) at dust trap sites
DOC 51-60 NV (source 6 of 6)
U.S. Department of Commerce (Weather Bureau), 1964, Nevada: Climatic summary of the United States-- Supplement for 1951 through 1960: Climatography of the United States 86-4.

Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Contribution:
Data used to calculate mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) at dust trap sites
2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
Date: 1984 (process 1 of 11)
The most important factors that influenced dust-trap design in this study were: (1) measuring the amount of dust added to soils; (2) sampling on an annual basis; (3) no protection other than being hard to find; and (4) the cost and ready availability of components that might have to be replaced from sources in small towns. The original design consists of a single-piece Teflon-coated angel-food cake pan (see note 1) painted flat black on the outside to maximize water evaporation and mounted on a steel fence post about 2 m above the ground. A circular piece of 1/4- inch-mesh galvanized hardware cloth is fitted into the pan so that it rests 3-4 cm below the rim, and glass marbles fill the upper part of the pan above the hardware cloth. The Teflon coating is non-reactive and adds no mineral contamination to the dust sample should it flake. The hardware cloth resists weathering under normal conditions. The 2-m height eliminates most sand-sized particles that travel by saltation rather than by suspension in air; sand grains are not generally pertinent to soil genesis because they are too large to be translocated downward into soil profiles. The marbles imitate the effect of a gravelly fan surface and prevent dust that has filtered or washed into the bottom of the pan from being blown away. The empty space below the hardware cloth provides a reservoir that prevents water from overflowing the pan during large storms. This basic design was modified in 1986 in two ways. In many areas, the traps became favored perching sites for a wide variety of birds. As a result, significant amounts of non-eolian sediment were locally added to the samples (as much as five times the normal amount of dust at some sites). All dust traps were fitted with two metal straps looped in an inverted basket shape over the top and the top surfaces of the straps were coated with Tanglefoot. [Use of trade names by the U.S. Geological Survey does not constitute an endorsement of the product.] This sticky material never dries (although it eventually becomes saturated with dust and must be reapplied) and effectively discourages birds from roosting. In addition, extra dust traps surrounded by alter-type wind baffles were constructed at four sites characterized by different plant communities. These communities and sites are: blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), creosote bush (Larrea divaricata), and other low brushy plants at sites 1-5 on Fortymile Wash; Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia), other tall yucca species, and blackbrush at site 18 on the Kyle Canyon fan; pinyon- juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus sp) at site 7 on Pahute Mesa; and acacia (acacia sp), creosote bush, and blackbrush at site 26 near the McCoy Mountains. The wind baffles imitate the effect of ground-level wind speed at the 2-m height of the dust trap and permit comparison of the amount of dust caught by an unshielded trap with the amount that should be caught at ground level where vegetation breaks the wind.
Date: 1985 (process 2 of 11)
Samples were obtained from the dust traps by carefully washing the marbles, screen, and pan with distilled water into plastic liter bottles. In the laboratory, the sample was gradually dried at about 35°C in large evaporating dishes; coarse organic material is removed during this process. Subsequent analyses on dust samples included, in the order they were performed: (1) moisture, (2) organic matter, (3) soluble salts and gypsum, (4) total carbonate (calcite plus dolomite), (5) grain size, (6) major-oxide chemistry, and (7) mineralogy (sand, silt, and clay fractions). The database for any given site commonly contains gaps depending on how far the sample for a particular year could be stretched through the analytical cascade. In some cases, samples from different years at the same site or adjacent sites were combined to obtain enough material for measuring grain size.
A sample was commonly retrieved and used in more than one analysis if the first analytical procedure used was non- destructive. These sequential analytical techniques included: (1) Moisture and organic-matter content (Walkley- Black procedure in Black, 1965) were measured on the same split using 0.05 g. (2) The entire sample was used to extract the solution to measure soluble salts (Jackson, 1958) and was then dried and recovered; thus, subsequent analyses were performed on samples without soluble salts. (3) A 0.25-g split was used to analyze total carbonate (Chittick procedure in Singer and Janitzky, 1986). This split, free of carbonate after the analysis, was recovered and used to analyze for major oxides and zirconium. (4) When sufficient sample (0.4 g) existed to obtain grain size using the Sedigraph rather than by pipette analysis, the clay and silt fractions were saved and used to analyze mineralogy by X-ray diffraction.
Most of the laboratory analyses were performed in the Sedimentation Laboratory of the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research in Boulder, Colorado, using standard laboratory techniques for soil samples (see Black, 1965, and Singer and Janitzky, 1986) that we adapted for use on very small samples (the non-organic content of a dust sample collected from one trap typically weighs less than 1 g/yr). These adaptations generally result in larger standard errors than normal for the results of different techniques because the amount of sample used is smaller than the recommended amount.
Date: 1987 (process 3 of 11)
Total dust flux is calculated by multiplying the mineral weight times the fraction less than 2 mm times the pan area times the fraction of year during which the sample accumulated (in file labdust.xls, number of days divided by 365). Other dust-flux values for various components (i. e. silt flux) are calculated by multiplying the total dust flux by the percentage of the component.
Preliminary examination of the flux data indicated that samples from some sites collected in 1985 and 1986, before the trap design was modified to discourage birds from roosting, were anomalously large (50-500% greater) compared to those collected in later years. All of the anomalous samples had been recorded as having significant amounts of bird feces at the time of collection. Consultations with bird biologists confirmed that bird droppings can contain significant amounts of mineral matter, mostly derived from cropstones; the amount varies with the species and with the diet of local populations of individual species. Moreover, perching birds can contaminate the sample with material from their feet. In some cases, we have evidence of near-deliberate contamination in the form of one or two pebble-sized clasts of local rocks that were found in samples, possibly dropped (or swapped for marbles) by large birds such as ravens. Data from samples with large amounts of bird droppings were discarded from further analysis and were excluded from the computations of "selected average" flux values.
Date: 1988 (process 4 of 11)
Major elements were measured in U.S. Geological Survey laboratories on a split of the less-than-2mm fraction remaining after analysis and removal of carbonate by the Chittick method. Major elements and zirconium were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectroscopy (Lichte and others, 1987). In some cases, samples from different years at the same site or adjacent sites were combined to obtain enough material for measuring major-oxide composition.
Date: 1988 (process 5 of 11)
Major oxides are calculated from elemental compositions (file dusticp.txt) using the following equations based on atomic weights:
 SiO2  = Si/0.467
Al2O3 = Al/0.529
Fe2O3 = Fe/0.699
MgO   = Mg/0.603
CaO   = Ca/0.715
Na2O  = Na/0.742
K2O   = K /0.830
TiO2  = Ti/0.599
MnO   = Mn/0.774
ZrO2  = Zr/0.740

The percentages of major oxides and zirconium were then recalculated to 100%, excluding water, volatiles, and minor elements, and the ratios of major oxides to ZrO2 are based on the recalculated values.
Date: 1988 (process 6 of 11)
Mineralogy was measured in U.S. Geological Survey laboratories on splits of samples that had been previously analyzed for grain size. Samples of sand, silt, and clay were slurried in water (sand samples were ground to a fine powder) and mounted dropwise on glass slides. Minerals in the sand and silt fractions were identified by characteristic peaks on X-ray diffractograms and their relative amounts were estimated by measuring peak heights. Minerals in the clay samples were identified by characteristic peaks obtained after the following treatments: air-dried, glycolated, and heated to 300 degrees C and 550 degrees C. The relative abundances of clay minerals were estimated by measuring the following peak heights (in degrees 2 theta) and adjusted for intensity variations between runs using the peak height of quartz at 26.65 2 theta: chlorite, 6.3 on the 550 degrees C trace; kaolinite, 12.6 on the glycolated trace minus the amount of chlorite; mica, 8.8 on the glycolated trace; smectite, 5.2 on the glycolated trace; mixed-layer mica- smectite, 8.85 on the 550 degrees trace minus the amounts of mica and smectite.
Date: 1993 (process 7 of 11)
The National Climatic Data Center no longer publishes mean climatic data for the entire length of record at weather stations. To obtain mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP) for the weather stations nearest the dust traps, averages had to be computed from climatic summaries of the United States (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1952, 1965), from station normals for 1961-1990 (National Climatic Data Center, 1992), and from various climatological data annual summaries. Comparisons could then be made of the long-term averages with those for the five years of dust collection (file climate.xls). Data sources used in this process:
• DOC 51-60 CA
• DOC 51-60 NV
• NCDC 61-90 A CA
• NCDC 61-90 M CA
• NCDC 61-90 A NV
• NCDC 61-90 M NV
Date: 1993 (process 8 of 11)
The dust-trap sites are at different elevations from the nearest weather stations. To estimate mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP) at the sampling sites, annual climate data for the entire period of record was obtained for every weather station in the region, including some that are no longer maintained but excluding those in coastal California. The data in this file was combined from the data in file aveclim.xls, which included the weather stations nearest the traps, and from climatic data for other stations. For many stations with relatively complete records, this involved computation of the averages of MAT and MAP (columns under "MAT calculations" and "MAP calculations") compiled from records prior to 1961, the last year in which averages for the entire length of record were published by the U.S. Department of Commerce (1965), and from station normals for 1961-1990 (National Climatic Data Center, 1992). Normals and averages are not published for stations with missing data or those which were moved at some time; for these stations, the computation required hand-entering data for each year of record from the climatological data annual summaries (columns under "MAT records" and "MAP records").
Linear regression (bottom left of file) was used to obtain equations that relate temperature and precipitation to elevation for these weather stations (columns "Elevation", "MAT", and "MAP") and to estimate these parameters at sampling sites with different elevations. For temperature, only one equation was required; it provides estimates with a standard error (s.e.) of only 1.3 degrees C. For precipitation, equations were most useful when the stations were divided into three geographic regions, including the area of the Mexican border and the Colorado River-southeast Nevada corridor (s.e.=2.6 cm), southwestern California east of the Transverse Ranges (s.e.=8.6 cm), and the interior deserts (s.e.=2.0 cm). Data sources used in this process:
• DOC 51-60 CA
• DOC 51-60 NV
• NCDC 61-90 A CA
• NCDC 61-90 M CA
• NCDC 61-90 A NV
• NCDC 61-90 M NV
Date: 1993 (process 9 of 11)
Estimates of MAP and MAT listed under "this study" were obtained using the linear regression equations calculated from data in file regclim.xls. These equations are:
 MAT = -0.0072E+23.4
MAP (interior deserts) = 0.00555E+7.075
MAP (Colo.R.-Salton Sea) = 0.01013+7.468
MAP (SW Calif.) = 0.05E+5.002

where E is elevation in meters. For comparison, MAP is also calculated using other published equations. For stations on the Nevada Test Site (T-1 through T-9) I used the equation of Quiring (1983), in which y = MAP in inches and x = elevation in thousands of feet:
 y = 1.36x - 0.51

For stations in southern Nevada, including the Nevada Test Site, I used the equations of French (1983), in which y = MAP in inches and x = elevation in feet. French (1983) divided southern Nevada roughly into thirds based on the paths of moisture-carrying air masses from the west and south; the eastern third has the most rainfall, the western third has the least, and the central third is intermediate:
 Eastern:  log y = 0.0000933x + 0.486
Central:  log y = 0.0000786x + 0.446
Western:  log y = 0.0000365x + 0.505

MAP at the closest weather station to the dust-trap site is also given. Estimates of MAP for sites near Los Angeles, including T-51 through T-54, using the equations from this study gave unrealistically low values (see file trapclim.xls) because this area is under a coastal rather than an interior climate. Thus, in the papers written using these data, MAP for these sites is assumed to be about the same as that at the nearest weather station.
Date: 1993 (process 10 of 11)
Mean monthly precipitation and temperature from 1984 to 1989 were acquired from the National Climatic Data Center (1984-1989) for weather stations in southern Nevada and California that were closest to dust-trap sites and entered into a spreadsheet in order to calculate mean annual values for climatic variables and compare them to long-term means (calculated in file aveclim.xls). Seasonal precipitation (May-October and November-April) was calculated from monthly values.
Date: 1993 (process 11 of 11)
Secondary climatic variables were calculated from the data in file climate.txt These secondary variables include monthly and annual potential evapotranspiration (PET) and the leaching index (LI) of Arkley (1963). The leaching index is a measure of available moisture obtained by subtracting monthly evapotranspiration from monthly precipitation. PET was calculated for all stations with both temperature and precipitation data using the method of Thornthwaite (1948), and for stations with mean minimum and maximum temperatures using the method of Papadakis (1965). The leaching index is calculated for both methods of PET. Pan evaporation measurements are also given where available (National Climatic Data Center and Farnsworth and others, 1982) for comparison.
PET is more readily calculated by the Thornthwaite method than by the Papadakis method, because the latter requires mean minimum and maximum temperatures that are commonly not recorded at some weather stations. However, according to Taylor (1986), the Thornthwaite method applied to climatic data for arid regions yields PET values that are much too low (as much as 150% compared to evaporation-pan data for the growing season). The Papadakis method provides estimates of PET that are closest to pan data in arid climates. Many thanks to Emily Taylor (U.S. Geological Survey) for guiding me through the complex calculations of PET and providing me with the appropriate references.
[Editor's note: These equations contain expressions that cannot be conveniently represented in plain ASCII text. Accordingly, I have coded the expressions using the notation of the programming language BASIC, hoping that most people will understand that. BASIC has no subscripting, however, so I used the underscore to indicate that the next character or two is subscripted. The correct notations can be obtained by examining the original document, in Microsoft Word for DOS format.]
 LI = (P - PET) summed for each month in which P > PET.

PET (Thornthwaite) = F(1.6(10t/I)^a)

where
t  temperature (degrees C) for the month
I  sum for 12 months of (t/5)^1.514  (given in column "heat factor I")
a  (6.75*10^(-7) * I^3) - (7.71* 10^(-5) * I^2) + (0.1792 * I) + 0.49239  (given in column "exponent a")
F  day length factor  (from table V in Thornthwaite, 1948)

PET (Papadakis) = 5.625 (e_ma - e_d)

where
e_ma is saturation vapor pressure of monthly average daily maximum temperature (mbars)
e_d is monthly average vapor pressure (dew point) (mbars)

According to Lindsley and others (1975, p. 35), vapour pressures are calculated by:
 e_ma = (33.869(0.00738 (max.T) + 0.8072)^8 - 0.00019 |1.8 (max.T) | + 0.001316)
e_d   = (33.869(0.00738 (min.T) + 0.8072)^8 - 0.00019 |1.8 (min.T) | + 0.001316)

where max.T is the monthly average maximum temperature and min.T is the monthly average minimum temperature.
[Editor's note: Here are the preceding equations rendered in TeX:
 {\parskip=\medskipamount
$LI = (P - PET)$ summed for each month in which $P > PET$.
$$PET (\hbox{Thornthwaite}) = F(1.6(10t/I)^a)$$
where
\halign{\quad # \hfil & \quad # \hfil\cr t & temperature (degrees C) for the month\cr I & sum for twelve months of (t/5)^{1.514} (given in column heat factor I'')\cr a & (6.75 \times 10^{-7}I^3) - (7.71 \times 10^{-5}I^2) + (0.1792I) + 0.49239 (given in column exponent a'')\cr F & day length factor (from table V in Thornthwaite, 1948)\cr }
$$PET (\hbox{Papadakis}) = 5.625 (e_{ma} - e_d)$$
where
\halign{\quad # \hfil & \quad # \hfil\cr e_{ma} & is the saturation vapor pressure of monthly average daily maximum temperature (in mbar), and \cr e_d & is the monthly average vapor pressure (dew point) in mbars\cr }
According to Lindsley and others (1975, p. 35), vapor pressures are calculated by:
$$e_{ma} = (33.869(0.00738 (\hbox{max.T}) + 0.8072)^8 - 0.00019 \vert 1.8 (\hbox{max.T}) \vert + 0.001316)$$
$$e_d = (33.869(0.00738 (\hbox{min.T}) + 0.8072)^8 - 0.00019 \vert 1.8 (\hbox{min.T}) \vert + 0.001316)$$
where max.T is the monthly average maximum temperature and min.T is the monthly average minimum temperature.
}

[Editor's note: end of TeX rendition of the equations.]
3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

### How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

1. How well have the observations been checked?
Samples were obtained from the dust traps by carefully washing the marbles, screen, and pan with distilled water into plastic liter bottles. In the laboratory, the sample was gradually dried at about 35°C in large evaporating dishes; coarse organic material is removed during this process. Subsequent analyses on dust samples included, in the order they were performed: (1) moisture, (2) organic matter, (3) soluble salts and gypsum, (4) total carbonate (calcite plus dolomite), (5) grain size, (6) major-oxide chemistry, and (7) mineralogy (sand, silt, and clay fractions). The database for any given site commonly contains gaps depending on how far the sample for a particular year could be stretched through the analytical cascade. In some cases, samples from different years at the same site or adjacent sites were combined to obtain enough material for measuring grain size.
A sample was commonly retrieved and used in more than one analysis if the first analytical procedure used was non- destructive. These sequential analytical techniques included: (1) Moisture and organic-matter content (Walkley- Black procedure in Black, 1965) were measured on the same split using 0.05 g. (2) The entire sample was used to extract the solution to measure soluble salts (Jackson, 1958) and was then dried and recovered; thus, subsequent analyses were performed on samples without soluble salts. (3) A 0.25-g split was used to analyze total carbonate (Chittick procedure in Singer and Janitzky, 1986). This split, free of carbonate after the analysis, was recovered and used to analyze for major oxides and zirconium. (4) When sufficient sample (0.4g) existed to obtain grain size using the Sedigraph rather than by pipette analysis, the clay and silt fractions were saved and used to analyze mineralogy by X-ray diffraction.
Most of the laboratory analyses were performed in the Sedimentation Laboratory of the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research in Boulder, Colorado, using standard laboratory techniques for soil samples (see Black, 1965, and Singer and Janitzky, 1986) that we adapted for use on very small samples (the non-organic content of a dust sample collected from one trap typically weighs less than 1 g/yr). These adaptations generally result in larger standard errors than normal for the results of different techniques because the amount of sample used is smaller than the recommended amount.
2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
Trap locations were ascertained by plotting their positions on USGS topographic maps at 1:24000 scale.
3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
The 55 sites established in 1984 and 1985 were sampled annually through 1989 in order to establish an adequate statistical basis to calculate annual dust flux. Sampling continues at 37 of these sites (many sites now have two or more dust traps) every two or three years as opportunity and funding permit.
The most important factors that influenced dust-trap design in this study were: (1) measuring the amount of dust added to soils; (2) sampling on an annual basis; (3) no protection other than being hard to find; and (4) the cost and ready availability of components that might have to be replaced from sources in small towns. The original design consists of a single-piece Teflon- coated angel-food cake pan (see note 1) painted flat black on the outside to maximize water evaporation and mounted on a steel fence post about 2 m above the ground. A circular piece of 1/4-inch- mesh galvanized hardware cloth is fitted into the pan so that it rests 3-4 cm below the rim, and glass marbles fill the upper part of the pan above the hardware cloth. The Teflon coating is non- reactive and adds no mineral contamination to the dust sample should it flake. The hardware cloth resists weathering under normal conditions. The 2-m height eliminates most sand-sized particles that travel by saltation rather than by suspension in air; sand grains are not generally pertinent to soil genesis because they are too large to be translocated downward into soil profiles. The marbles imitate the effect of a gravelly fan surface and prevent dust that has filtered or washed into the bottom of the pan from being blown away. The empty space below the hardware cloth provides a reservoir that prevents water from overflowing the pan during large storms. This basic design was modified in 1986 in two ways. In many areas, the traps became favored perching sites for a wide variety of birds. As a result, significant amounts of non-eolian sediment were locally added to the samples (as much as five times the normal amount of dust at some sites). All dust traps were fitted with two metal straps looped in an inverted basket shape over the top and the top surfaces of the straps were coated with Tanglefoot1. This sticky material never dries (although it eventually becomes saturated with dust and must be reapplied) and effectively discourages birds from roosting. In addition, extra dust traps surrounded by alter- type wind baffles were constructed at four sites characterized by different plant communities. These communities and sites are: blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), creosote bush (Larrea divaricata), and other low brushy plants at sites 1-5 on Fortymile Wash; Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia), other tall yucca species, and blackbrush at site 18 on the Kyle Canyon fan; pinyon-juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus sp) at site 7 on Pahute Mesa; and acacia (acacia sp), creosote bush, and blackbrush at site 26 near the McCoy Mountains. The wind baffles imitate the effect of ground-level wind speed at the 2-m height of the dust trap and permit comparison of the amount of dust caught by an unshielded trap with the amount that should be caught at ground level where vegetation breaks the wind.
5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
The sampling design for this study was not statistically based; rather, sites were chosen to provide data on dust influx at soil- study sites and to answer specific questions about the relations of dust to local source lithology and type, distance from source, and climate. Some sites were chosen for their proximity to potential dust sources of different lithologic composition (for example, playas versus granitic, calcic, or mafic alluvial fans). Other sites were placed along transects crossing topographic barriers downwind from a dust source. These transects include sites east of Tonopah (43-46) crossing the rhyolitic Kawich Range, sites downwind of northern (40, 35, 36) and central Death Valley ( 38, 39, 11-14) crossing the mixed-lithology Grapevine and Funeral Mountains, respectively, and sites downwind of Desert Dry Lake crossing the calcareous Sheep Range (47-50) north of Las Vegas. In addition, some sites were chosen for their proximity to weather stations.
Specific locations for dust traps were chosen on the basis of the above criteria plus accessibility, absence of dirt roads or other artificially disturbed areas upwind, and inconspicuousness. The last factor is important because the sites are not protected or monitored; hence, most sites are at least 0.5 mile from a road or trail. Despite these precautions, dust traps are sometimes tampered with, often violently. This is a particular problem in areas close to population centers, and most of these sites (52-55 near Los Angeles and 17-19 and 22 near Las Vegas) have been abandoned. A few other sites, mostly those that appeared to be greatly influenced by nearby farming (20, 21, and 41), were eliminated in 1989. Dust traps were also generally placed in flat, relatively open areas to mitigate wind-eddy effects created by tall vegetation or topographic irregularities.
See notes in the Attribute_Accuracy_Report regarding combination of samples too small for individual analyses. Generally the data from ICP, oxides, and mineralogy are for combined samples.

### How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
Peter N. Schweitzer
U.S. Geological Survey
Mail Stop 954 National Center
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, VA
USA

(703) 648-6533 (voice)
pschweitzer@usgs.gov
2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Dust data AGU-JGR-100-D5
3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
• Availability in digital form: Data format: Dust data in format ASCII tab-delimited http://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/metadata/other/agu-jgr-100-d5/data.zip
• Cost to order the data: none

Dates:
Peter N. Schweitzer
Collection manager, USGS Geoscience Data Clearinghouse, http://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/
Mail Stop 918
U.S. Geological Survey
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, VA
USA

(703) 648-6533 (voice)
(703) 648-6560 (FAX)
pschweitzer@usgs.gov