Digital Geologic Map of the Penokean Continental Margin, Northern Michigan and Wisconsin

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What does this data set describe?

Title:
Digital Geologic Map of the Penokean Continental Margin, Northern Michigan and Wisconsin
Abstract:
The data on this CD consist of geographic information system (GIS) coverages and tabular data on the geology of Early Proterozoic and Archean rocks in part of the Early Proterozoic Penokean orogeny. The map emphasizes metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that were deposited along the southern margin of the Superior craton and were later deformed during continental collision at about 1850 Ma. The area includes the famous iron ranges of the south shore region of the Lake Superior district. Base maps, both as digital raster graphics (DRG) and digital line graphs (DLG) are also provided for the convenience of users. The map has been compiled from many individual studies, mostly by USGS researchers, completed during the past 50 years, including many detailed (1:24,000 scale) geologic maps. Data was compiled at 1:100,000 scale and preserves most of the details of source materials. This product is a preliminary release of the geologic map data bases during ongoing studies of the geology and metallogeny of the Penokean continental margin. Files are provided in three formats: Federal Spatial Data Transfer format (SDTS), Arc export format (.e00) files, and Arc coverages. All files can be accessed directly from the CD-ROM using either ARC/INFO 7.1.2 or later or Arc View 3.0 or later software. ESRI's Arc Explorer, a free GIS data viewer also provides display and querying capability for these files.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Cannon, William F., 19990830, Digital Geologic Map of the Penokean Continental Margin, Northern Michigan and Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-547, U.S. Department of the Interior, USGS, Eastern Mineral Resources Team, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -91.50000016
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -87
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 47.00103892
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 45.5
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1999/of99-547/pcmlyout3.jpg (JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group format)
    This file map.jpg is a graphic representation of the bedrock geology of the Penokean Continental Margin. Data included in this view include bedrock geologic units, and faults. Size is 58k bytes.
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1999/of99-547/pcmlyout2.jpg (JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group format)
    This file is a graphic representation of the bedrock geology of the Penokean Continental Margin. Data included in this view include bedrock geologic units, and faults. Size is 270k bytes.
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1999/of99-547/penokean.pdf (PDF)
    This file is a graphic representation of the bedrock geology of the Penokean Continental Margin. Data included in this view include bedrock geologic units, and faults. Size 1524k bytes.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 15-Aug-1999
    Currentness_Reference:
    publication date
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a vector data set.
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.0000003. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.0000003. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal Degrees. The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1927.
      The ellipsoid used is Clarke 1866.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378206.4.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/294.98.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    pcmgeolg.pat
    Polygon attribute table for pcgeo polygon coverage. The table contains attributes that address the following four catagories: 1.) STRATIGRAPHIC INFORMATION classifying geologic units according to stratigraphic position,2.) LITHOLOGIC INFORMATION providing three levels of detail (rock type, subtype, and lithology) to allow classification of rock types in both general and specific detail. The classification used is a draft classification scheme being developed by the USGS for digital portrayal of lithologic information. Information is provided for both the major lithologic type for each unit and as many as two additional significant lithologies, 3.) TECTONIC INFORMATION providing information on various aspects of the formation and deformation of units, and 4.) Fault type which classifies faults by type and age. (Source: Contributing Author)
    UNIT_NAME
    Name of the geologic units represented as polygons. Stratigraphic name for rock units. For layered rocks, generally corresponds to formation name.
    ValueDefinition
    Ajibik Quartzite 
    Amasa Iron-formation 
    Amberg Granite 
    Amphibolite 
    Anorogenic granite 
    Athelstane Quartz Monzonite 
    Bad River Dolomite 
    Badwater Greenstone 
    Barron Quartzite 
    Basal conglomerate 
    Basal magnetic unit 
    Basaltic and andesitic breccia 
    Blair Creek Formation basalt and graywacke 
    Blair Creek Formation magnetic unit 
    Bush Lake Granite 
    Chocolay undivided 
    Chocolay-Menominee-Baraga Groups undivided 
    Copps Formation 
    Dead River Pluton 
    Diabase dike 
    Dickinson Group undivided 
    Diorite 
    Dunbar Gneiss 
    Dunn Creek Slate 
    East Branch Arkose 
    Emperor Volcanics-felsic 
    Emperor Volcanics-mafic 
    Enchantment Lake Formation 
    Felsic volcanics and sediments 
    Fence River Iron-formation 
    Fern Creek Formation 
    Fortune Lake Slate 
    Gabbro 
    Gneiss 
    Gneiss and amphibolite 
    Gneiss and schist 
    Goodrich Conglomerate 
    Goodrich Quartzite 
    Granite and granitic gneiss 
    Granite and tonalite 
    Granitic rocks 
    Granitoid rocks anorogenic 
    Graywacke 
    Graywacke and volcanic rocks 
    Hemlock Volcanics basalt flows 
    Hemlock Volcanics breccia and pyroclasic rocks 
    Hemlock Volcanics iron-formation 
    Hemlock Volcanics metarhyolite 
    Hemlock Volcanics metasediments 
    Hemlock Volcanics undivided 
    Hiawatha Graywacke 
    Hoskins Lake Granite 
    Iron-formation 
    Ironwood Iron-formation 
    Jacobsville Sandstone 
    Keweenawan rocks undivided 
    Kitchi Formation 
    Kona Dolomite 
    Mafic volcanic rocks 
    Marinette Quartz Diorite 
    Menominee Group undivided 
    Menominee-Baraga Groups undivided 
    Mesnard Quartzite 
    Metadiabase 
    Metagabbro 
    Metasedimentary rocks 
    Michigamme Formation iron-formation 
    Michigamme Formation-Bijiki Iron-formation 
    Michigamme Formation-Clarksburg volcanics 
    Michigamme Formation-Greenwood Iron-formation 
    Michigamme Formation-graywacke 
    Michigamme Formation-lower slate 
    Michigamme Formation-quartzite 
    Mona Formation Nealy Creek Member 
    Mona Formation basalt 
    Mona Formation rhyolite tuff 
    Mt. Simon Sandstone 
    Munising Sandstone 
    Negaunee Iron-formation 
    Newington Tonalite 
    Newington Tonalite megacrytsic facies 
    Ophiolite 
    Paint River Group undivided 
    Palmer Gneiss 
    Palms Formation 
    Peridotite 
    Puritan Quartz Monzonite 
    Quartz diorite 
    Quartzite at Michigamme Mountain 
    Ramsey Formation-felsic volcanics 
    Ramsey Formation-mafic flows 
    Ramsey Formation-pyroclastic rocks 
    Randville Dolomite 
    Reany Creek Formation 
    Rhyolite and dacite 
    Rhyolite. felsic tuff graywacke 
    Riverton Iron-formation 
    Saunders Formation 
    Sedimentary and volcanic rocks 
    Siamo Slate 
    Six Mile Lake Amphibolite 
    Solberg Schist 
    Spikehorn Creek Granite 
    Stambaugh Formation 
    Stambaugh Formation-Hiawatha Graywacke 
    Sturgeon Quartzite 
    Sunday Quartzite 
    Sunday-Bad River undivided 
    Twelve Foot Falls Quartz Diorite 
    Tyler Formation 
    Volcanic and granitic rocks 
    Volcanic rocks 
    Volcanic rocks and graywacke 
    Volcanic rocks undivided 
    Volcanic-sedimentary unit 
    Vulcan Iron-formation 
    Wewe Slate 
    MAP_SYMBOL
    A unique alphabetic symbol identifying each geologic unit as defined under the attribute "UNIT_NAME".
    ValueDefinition
    CMuMunising Sandstone
    CmsMt. Simon sandstone
    WMaAmphibolite
    WMamAmphibolite
    WMdebEast Branch Arkose
    WMdrDead River Pluton
    WMdsSolberg Schist
    WMduDickinson Group undivided
    WMgaGneiss and amphibolite
    WMggGranite and granitic gneiss
    WMgnGneiss
    WMgrGranitic rocks
    WMgsGneiss and schist
    WMgwGraywacke
    WMkKitchi Formation
    WMmbMona Formation basalt
    WMmnMona Formation Nealy Creek Member
    WMmrMona Formation rhyolite tuff
    WMpPuritan Quartz Monzonite
    WMpdPeridotite
    WMpgPalmer Gneiss
    WMprPeridotite
    WMrcReany Creek Formation
    WMrfRamsey Formation-felsic volcanics
    WMrmRamsey Formation-mafic flows
    WMrpRamsey Formation-pyroclastic rocks
    WMsmSix Mile Lake Amphibolite
    WWgnGneiss
    XBgvGraywacke and volcanic rocks
    XBifIron-formation
    XBvgVolcanic rocks and graywacke
    XIbgBadwater Greenstone
    XIdcDunn Creek Slate
    XIflFortune Lake Slate
    XIhgHiawatha Graywacke
    XIiprPaint River Group undivided
    XImgMetagabbro
    XImgwMichigamme Formation-graywacke
    XImqMichigamme Formation-quartzite
    XIraRandville Dolomite
    XIriRiverton Iron-formation
    XIsaSaunders Formation
    XIshStambaugh Formation-Hiawatha Graywacke
    XIstStambaugh Formation
    XIvVulcan Iron-formation
    XMaiAnorogenic granite
    XMajAjibik Quartzite
    XMamAmasa Iron-formation
    XMbcBasal conglomerate
    XMbcBlair Creek Formation basalt and graywacke
    XMbcmBlair Creek Formation magnetic unit
    XMbmcChocolay-Menominee-Baraga Groups undivided
    XMbmuMenominee-Baraga Groups undivided
    XMbrBad River Dolomite
    XMcCopps Formation
    XMcuChocolay undivided
    XMefEmperor Volcanics-felsic
    XMelEnchantment Lake Formation
    XMemEmperor Volcanics-mafic
    XMfcFern Creek Formation
    XMfrFence River Iron-formation
    XMgGoodrich Quartzite
    XMhbHemlock Volcanics basalt flows
    XMhbrHemlock Volcanics breccia and pyroclasic rocks
    XMhiHemlock Volcanics iron-formation
    XMhrhHemlock Volcanics metarhyolite
    XMhsHemlock Volcanics metasediments
    XMhuHemlock Volcanics undivided
    XMiIronwood Iron-formation
    XMkKona Dolomite
    XMmMesnard Quartzite
    XMmbiMichigamme Formation-Bijiki Iron-formation
    XMmcGoodrich Conglomerate
    XMmcvMichigamme Formation-Clarksburg volcanics
    XMmdMetadiabase
    XMmgiMichigamme Formation-Greenwood Iron-formation
    XMmgwMichigamme Formation-graywacke
    XMmiMichigamme Formation iron-formation
    XMmlsMichigamme Formation-lower slate
    XMmmQuartzite at Michigamme Mountain
    XMmuMenominee Group undivided
    XMnNegaunee Iron-formation
    XMpPalms Formation
    XMrRandville Dolomite
    XMsSunday Quartzite
    XMsbSunday-Bad River undivided
    XMsiSiamo Slate
    XMstSturgeon Quartzite
    XMtTyler Formation
    XMvVulcan Iron-formation
    XMvsVolcanic-sedimentary unit
    XMwWewe Slate
    XPFsvSedimentary and volcanic rocks
    XPamAmberg Granite
    XPatAthelstane Quartz Monzonite
    XPbabBasaltic and andesitic breccia
    XPblBush Lake Granite
    XPdgDunbar Gneiss
    XPdiDiorite
    XPfvFelsic volcanics and sediments
    XPgaGranitoid rocks anorogenic
    XPgtGranite and tonalite
    XPhlHoskins Lake Granite
    XPmMetasedimentary rocks
    XPmgMetagabbro
    XPmqMarinette Quartz Diorite
    XPmvMafic volcanic rocks
    XPnNewington Tonalite
    XPnmNewington Tonalite megacrytsic facies
    XPoOphiolite
    XPqdQuartz diorite
    XPrdRhyolite and dacite
    XPrgRhyolite. felsic tuff graywacke
    XPscSpikehorn Creek Granite
    XPtfTwelve Foot Falls Quartz Diorite
    XPvVolcanic rocks undivided
    XPvgVolcanic and granitic rocks
    XWbmBasal magnetic unit
    XWgwGraywacke
    XWvVolcanic rocks
    XbqBarron Quartzite
    YdDiabase dike
    YgbGabbro
    YjJacobsville Sandstone
    YkuKeweenawan rocks undivided
    EXPLANATION
    A combination of Unit_name and Map_symbol
    ValueDefinition
    CMu Munising Sandstone 
    Cms Mt. Simon sandstone 
    WMa Amphibolite 
    WMam Amphibolite 
    WMdeb East Branch Arkose 
    WMdr Dead River Pluton 
    WMds Solberg Schist 
    WMdu Dickinson Group undivided 
    WMga Gneiss and amphibolite 
    WMgg Granite and granitic gneiss 
    WMgn Gneiss 
    WMgr Granitic rocks 
    WMgs Gneiss and schist 
    WMgw Graywacke 
    WMk Kitchi Formation 
    WMmb Mona Formation basalt 
    WMmn Mona Formation Nealy Creek Member 
    WMmr Mona Formation rhyolite tuff 
    WMp Puritan Quartz Monzonite 
    WMpd Peridotite 
    WMpg Palmer Gneiss 
    WMpr Peridotite 
    WMrc Reany Creek Formation 
    WMrf Ramsey Formation-felsic volcanics 
    WMrm Ramsey Formation-mafic flows 
    WMrp Ramsey Formation-pyroclastic rocks 
    WMsm Six Mile Lake Amphibolite 
    WWgn Gneiss 
    XBgv Graywacke and volcanic rocks 
    XBif Iron-formation 
    XBvg Volcanic rocks and graywacke 
    XIbg Badwater Greenstone 
    XIdc Dunn Creek Slate 
    XIfl Fortune Lake Slate 
    XIhg Hiawatha Graywacke 
    XIipr Paint River Group undivided 
    XImg Metagabbro 
    XImgw Michigamme Formation-graywacke 
    XImq Michigamme Formation-quartzite 
    XIra Randville Dolomite 
    XIri Riverton Iron-formation 
    XIsa Saunders Formation 
    XIsh Stambaugh Formation-Hiawatha Graywacke 
    XIst Stambaugh Formation 
    XIv Vulcan Iron-formation 
    XMai Anorogenic granite 
    XMaj Ajibik Quartzite 
    XMam Amasa Iron-formation 
    XMbc Basal conglomerate 
    XMbc Blair Creek Formation basalt and graywacke 
    XMbcm Blair Creek Formation magnetic unit 
    XMbmc Chocolay-Menominee-Baraga Groups undivided 
    XMbmu Menominee-Baraga Groups undivided 
    XMbr Bad River Dolomite 
    XMc Copps Formation 
    XMcu Chocolay undivided 
    XMef Emperor Volcanics-felsic 
    XMel Enchantment Lake Formation 
    XMem Emperor Volcanics-mafic 
    XMfc Fern Creek Formation 
    XMfr Fence River Iron-formation 
    XMg Goodrich Quartzite 
    XMhb Hemlock Volcanics basalt flows 
    XMhbr Hemlock Volcanics breccia and pyroclasic rocks 
    XMhi Hemlock Volcanics iron-formation 
    XMhrh Hemlock Volcanics metarhyolite 
    XMhs Hemlock Volcanics metasediments 
    XMhu Hemlock Volcanics undivided 
    XMi Ironwood Iron-formation 
    XMk Kona Dolomite 
    XMm Mesnard Quartzite 
    XMmbi Michigamme Formation-Bijiki Iron-formation 
    XMmc Goodrich Conglomerate 
    XMmcv Michigamme Formation-Clarksburg volcanics 
    XMmd Metadiabase 
    XMmgi Michigamme Formation-Greenwood Iron-formation 
    XMmgw Michigamme Formation-graywacke 
    XMmi Michigamme Formation iron-formation 
    XMmls Michigamme Formation-lower slate 
    XMmm Quartzite at Michigamme Mountain 
    XMmu Menominee Group undivided 
    XMn Negaunee Iron-formation 
    XMp Palms Formation 
    XMr Randville Dolomite 
    XMs Sunday Quartzite 
    XMsb Sunday-Bad River undivided 
    XMsi Siamo Slate 
    XMst Sturgeon Quartzite 
    XMt Tyler Formation 
    XMv Vulcan Iron-formation 
    XMvs Volcanic-sedimentary unit 
    XMw Wewe Slate 
    XPFsv Sedimentary and volcanic rocks 
    XPam Amberg Granite 
    XPat Athelstane Quartz Monzonite 
    XPbab Basaltic and andesitic breccia 
    XPbl Bush Lake Granite 
    XPdg Dunbar Gneiss 
    XPdi Diorite 
    XPfv Felsic volcanics and sediments 
    XPga Granitoid rocks anorogenic 
    XPgt Granite and tonalite 
    XPhl Hoskins Lake Granite 
    XPm Metasedimentary rocks 
    XPmg Metagabbro 
    XPmq Marinette Quartz Diorite 
    XPmv Mafic volcanic rocks 
    XPn Newington Tonalite 
    XPnm Newington Tonalite megacrytsic facies 
    XPo Ophiolite 
    XPqd Quartz diorite 
    XPrd Rhyolite and dacite 
    XPrg Rhyolite. felsic tuff graywacke 
    XPsc Spikehorn Creek Granite 
    XPtf Twelve Foot Falls Quartz Diorite 
    XPv Volcanic rocks undivided 
    XPvg Volcanic and granitic rocks 
    XWbm Basal magnetic unit 
    XWgw Graywacke 
    XWv Volcanic rocks 
    Xbq Barron Quartzite 
    Yd Diabase dike 
    Ygb Gabbro 
    Yj Jacobsville Sandstone 
    Yku Keweenawan rocks undivided 
    ERA
    The geologic era in which the rock unit formed. Not earned run average.
    ValueDefinition
    Phanerozoic 
    Precambrian 
    PERIOD
    The geological period in which the rock unit formed.
    ValueDefinition
    Archean 
    Paleozoic 
    Proterozoic 
    SUBPERIOD
    The geological subperiod in which the rock unit formed.
    ValueDefinition
    Cambrian 
    Early Proterozoic 
    Early and Late Archean 
    Late Archean 
    Middle Proterozoic 
    SUPERGROUP
    The stratigraphic supergroup to which a rock unit is assigned.
    ValueDefinition
    Keweenawan 
    Marquette Range 
    unclassified 
    GROUP
    The stratigraphic group to which a rock unit has been assigned.
    ValueDefinition
    Baraga 
    Chocolay 
    Chocolay Menominee Baraga 
    Dickinson 
    Menominee 
    Menominee Baraga 
    Paint River 
    unclassified 
    FORMATION/PLUTON
    The stratigraphic formation and igneous pluton to which a rock unit has been assigned.
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    Ajibik Quartzite 
    Amasa Iron-formation 
    Amberg Granite 
    Athelstane Quartz Monzonite 
    Bad River Dolomite 
    Badwater Greenstone 
    Blair Creek Formation 
    Bush Lake Granite 
    Chocolay Group undivided 
    Chocolay-Menominee-Baraga Groups undivided 
    Copps Formation 
    Dead River Pluton 
    Dunbar Gneiss 
    Dunn Creek Slate 
    East Branch Arkose 
    Emperor Volcanics 
    Enchantment Lake Formation 
    Fence River Iron-formation 
    Fern Creek Formation 
    Fortune Lake Slate 
    Goodrich Quartzite 
    Hemlock Volcanics 
    Hiawatha Graywacke 
    Hoskins Lake Granite 
    Ironwood Iron-formation 
    Jacobsville Sandstone 
    Kitchi Formation 
    Kona Dolomite 
    Marinette Quartz Diorite 
    Menominee Group undivided 
    Menominee-Baraga Groups undivided 
    Mesnard Quartzite 
    Michigamme 
    Michigamme Formation 
    Michigamme Formation-graywacke 
    Michigamme Formation-quartzite 
    Mona 
    Mona Formation 
    Mt. Simon Sandstone 
    Munising Sandstone 
    Negaunee Iron-formation 
    Newington Tonalite 
    Newington Tonalite megacrytsic facies 
    Paint River Group undivided 
    Palmer Gneiss 
    Palms Formation 
    Puritan Quartz Monzonite 
    Quartzite at Michigamme Mountain 
    Ramsey 
    Randville Dolomite 
    Reany Creek 
    Riverton Iron-formation 
    Saunders Formation 
    Siamo Slate 
    Six Mile Lake Amphibolite 
    Solberg Schist 
    Spikehorn Creek Granite 
    Stambaugh Formation 
    Stambaugh Formation-Hiawatha Graywacke 
    Sturgeon Quartzite 
    Sunday Quartzite 
    Sunday-Bad River undivided 
    Twelve Foot Falls Quartz Diorite 
    Tyler Formation 
    Volcanic-sedimentary unit 
    Vulcan Iron-formation 
    Wewe Slate 
    basaltic and andesitic breccia 
    felsic volcanics and sediments 
    graywacke and volcanic rocks 
    iron-formation 
    mafic volcanic rocks 
    metasedimentary rocks 
    rhyolite and dacite 
    rhyolite. felsic tuff graywacke 
    unclassified 
    volcanic rocks 
    volcanic rocks and graywacke 
    MEMBER
    The geologic member to which a rock unit has been assigned
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    Bijiki Iron-formation 
    Clarksburg Volcanics 
    Greenwood Iron-formation 
    Nealy Creek 
    basalt 
    basalt and graywacke 
    breccia and pyroclastic rocks 
    felsic volcanic rocks 
    felsic volcanics 
    graywacke 
    iron-formation 
    lower slate 
    mafic flows 
    mafic volcanics 
    magnetic unit 
    metarhyolite 
    metasediments 
    pyroclastic rocks 
    rhyolite tuff 
    unnamed conglomerate 
    unnamed iron-formation 
    AGE
    Radiometric age or age range. Shown only for well constrained units.
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    MAJOR_ROCKTYPE
    The general lithologic classification for the most abundant rock type in a unit.
    ValueDefinition
    metamorphic 
    plutonic 
    sedimentary 
    tectonite 
    MAJOR_SUBTYPE
    The lithologic subtype for the most abundant rock type in a unit.
    ValueDefinition
    amphibolite 
    clastic 
    flaser gneiss 
    gneiss 
    granitioid 
    granitoid 
    intermediate 
    mafic 
    meta-intrusive 
    metasedimentary 
    metavolcanic 
    schist 
    MAJOR_LITHOLOGY
    A specific lithologic name for the most abundant rock type in a unit.
    ValueDefinition
    alkali granite 
    amphibole schist 
    amphibolite 
    arkose 
    black slate 
    diabase 
    diorite 
    dolomitic marble 
    flaser gneiss 
    gabbro 
    granite 
    granitic gneiss 
    iron-formation 
    meta-agglomerate 
    meta-aglomerate 
    meta-andesite 
    meta-argillite 
    meta-arkose 
    metabasalt 
    metabasaltic breccia 
    metachert 
    metaconglomerate 
    metadiabase 
    metagabbro 
    metagraywacke 
    metarhyolite 
    metasedimentary rocks undivided 
    metasediments undivided 
    metatuff 
    metavolcanic rocks undivided 
    quartz diorite 
    quartz monzonite 
    quartzite 
    sandstone 
    schist 
    serpentinite 
    slate 
    tonalite 
    MINOR_1_RK_TYPE
    The general lithologic classification for a less abundant rock type in a unit.
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    extrusive 
    metamorphic 
    plutonic 
    sedimentary 
    tectonite 
    MINOR_1_SUBTYPE
    The lithologic subtype for a less abundant rock type in a unit.
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    amphibolite 
    clastic 
    gneiss 
    granitoid 
    intermediate 
    mafic 
    meta-intrusive 
    metasedimentary 
    metavolcanic 
    mylonite 
    schist 
    serpentinite 
    MINOR_1_LITH
    A specific lithologic name for a less abundant rock type in a unit.
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    amphibole schist 
    amphibolite 
    andesitic breccia 
    basalt 
    biotite schist 
    black slate 
    diorite 
    ferruginous slate 
    gabbro 
    granite 
    granitic gneiss 
    granodiorite 
    mafic gneiss 
    marble 
    meta-agglomerate 
    meta-andesite 
    metabasalt 
    metachert breccia 
    metaconglomerate 
    metadacite 
    metagabbro 
    metagraywacke 
    metarhyolite 
    metasediments undivided 
    metatuff 
    metavolcanic breccia 
    metavolcanic brecia 
    migmatite 
    mylonite 
    quartzite 
    serpentinite 
    silicic marble 
    siltstone 
    slate 
    tonalite 
    MINOR_2_RK_TYPE
    A specific lithologic name for a less abundant rock type in a unit
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    metamorphic 
    plutonic 
    sedimentary 
    MINOR_2_SUBTYPE
    The lithologic subtype for a less abundant rock type in a unit.
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    clastic 
    gneiss 
    granitoid 
    metasedimentary 
    metavolcanic 
    plutonic 
    schist 
    MINOR_2_LITH
    A specific lithologic name for a less abundant rock type in a unit.
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    conglomerate 
    ferruginous slate 
    granite 
    granitic gneiss 
    iron-formation 
    meta-agglomerate 
    meta-argillite 
    meta-arkose 
    metabasalt 
    metachert breccia 
    metaconglomerate 
    metagraywacke 
    metarhyolite 
    metasediments undivided 
    metatuff 
    migmatite 
    plagiorhyolite 
    quartzite 
    schist 
    silicic marble 
    slate 
    PROVINCE
    The geologic province to which a rock unit has been assigned.
    ValueDefinition
    Baraboo interval 
    Interior Platform 
    Midcontinent Rift 
    Penokean 
    TERRANE
    The geologic terrane to which a rock unit has been assigned.
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    Fold and thrust belt 
    Hollandale Embayment 
    Michigan Basin 
    Wisconsin magmatic terranes 
    SUBTERRANE
    The geologic subterrane to which a rock unit has been assigned.
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    Beechwood 
    Iron River 
    Michigamme 
    Park Falls 
    Pembine-Wausau 
    Watersmeet 
    PROVINCE_AGE
    Geologic age of province in which rock unit formed.
    ValueDefinition
    Early Proterozoic 
    Middle Proterozoic 
    Paleozoic 
    ORIGINAL_PROV
    Tectonic province in which older rocks were originally formed. Applied mostly to Archean rocks that were modified during Penokean orogeny.
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    Interior Platform 
    Midcontinent Rift 
    Penokean 
    Superior 
    ORIGINAL_SUBPROV
    Tectonic subprovince in which older rocks were originally formed. Applied mostly to Archean rocks that were modified during Penokean orogeny.
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    Fold and thrust belt 
    Hollandale Embayment 
    Michigan Basin 
    Minnesota River Valley 
    Wawa 
    Wisconsin magmatic terranes 
    ORIG_PROV_AGE
    Original age of older rocks that have been modified during the Penokean orogeny.
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    Early Proterozoic 
    Early and Late Archean 
    Late Archean 
    Middle Proterozoic 
    Paleozoic 
    ENVIRONMENT
    The physical environment in which the rock units were formed.
    ValueDefinition
    fluvial 
    glacial 
    intrusive 
    marine 
    shallow marine 
    shear zone 
    subaerial flood basalt fluvial 
    unknown 
    varied 
    TECTONIC_SETTING
    The tectonic setting in which rock units were formed.
    ValueDefinition
    Foreland Basin 
    continental rift 
    foreland basin 
    intracratonic basin 
    island arc complex 
    rifting margin 
    shear zone 
    spreading center 
    stable craton 
    syntectonic intrusion 
    unknown 
    varied 
    FAULT_TYPE
    A classification of faults by type and age. Penokean thrust- Major thrust faults formed during the Penokean orogeny. Most are boundaries between terranes or subterranes. All of the Penokean Thrust faults are north thrusting. Secondary Penokean thrust- thrust faults formed during the Penokean orogeny. Generally occur within a single subterrane. The Secondary Penokean Thrust Faults are variable in direction. Keweenawan thrust- thrust faults of Middle Proterozoic age related to the Midcontinent rift.The Keweenawan thrust faults are south thrusting. Faults with some Keweenawan displacement- faults with unclassified type of motion but which offset Keweenawan rocks as well as Early Proterozoic units. Some may be reactivated Penokean faults. Unclassified- faults for which information is insufficient to determine age or relative motion. Linear_ftrs- structure based on geophysical interpretation of buried terranes.
    ValueDefinition
    (blank) 
    Faults With Some Keweenawan Motion 
    Great Lakes Tectonic Zone 
    Keweenawan Thrust 
    Penokean Thrust 
    Secondary Penokean Thrust 
    Unclassified 
    linear ftrs 

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • William F. Cannon
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    William F. Cannon
    Eastern Mineral Resources, USGS, Department of the Interior
    USGS National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 954
    Reston, Virginia
    USA

    703-648-6345 (voice)
    wcannon@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

The digital map is meant to provide accurate, accessible, and interactive information concerning the ongoing studies of the geology and metallogeny of the Penokean Continental Margin of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Northern Wisconsin.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    James and others, 1961 (source 1 of 34)
    James, H.L., Clark, L.D., Lamey, C.A., Pettijohn, F.J., 1961, Geology of Central Dickinson County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 310.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Gair 1975 (source 2 of 34)
    Gair, J.E., 1975, Bedrock geology and ore deposits of the Palmer quadrangle, Marquette County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 769.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Gair and Thaden, 1968 (source 3 of 34)
    Gair, J.E., Thaden, R.E., 1968, Geology of the Marquette and Sands quadrangles, Marquette County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 397.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Wier 1967 (source 4 of 34)
    Wier, K.L., 1967, Geology of the Kelso Junction quadrangle, Iron County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1226.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Gair and Weir, 1956 (source 5 of 34)
    Gair, J.E., Wier, K.L., 1956, Geology of the Kiernan Quadrangle, Iron County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1044.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    James and others, 1968 (source 6 of 34)
    James, H.L., Dutton, C.E., Pettijohn, F.J., Wier, K.L., 1968, Geology and ore deposits of the Iron River-Crystal Falls district, Iron County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 570.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Bayley and others, 1966 (source 7 of 34)
    Bayley, R.W., Dutton, C.E., Lamey, C.E., 1966, Geology of the Menominee iron-bearing district, Dickinson County, Michigan and Florence and Marinette Counties, Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 513.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Cannon 1975 (source 8 of 34)
    Cannon, W.F., 1975, Bedrock geologic map of the Republic quadrangle, Marquette County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-862.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Sims and Schulz, 1993 (source 9 of 34)
    Sims, P.K., Schulz, K.J., 1993, Geologic map of Precambrian rocks of parts of Iron Mountain and Escanaba 30'x60' quadrangles, northeastern Wisconsin and adjacent Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2356.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 100000
    Sims 1990 (source 10 of 34)
    Sims, P.K., 1990, Geologic map of Precambrian rocks, Marenisco, Thayer, and Watersmeet 15-minute quadrangles, Gogebic and Ontonagon Counties, Michigan and Vilas County, Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2093.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 62500
    Cannon and Klasner, 1980 (source 11 of 34)
    Cannon, W.F., Klasner, J.S., 1980, Bedrock geologic map of the Kenton-Perch Lake area, northern Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1290.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 62500
    Cannon and Klasner, 1976 (source 12 of 34)
    Cannon, W.F., Klasner, J.S., 1976, Geologic map and geophysical interpretation of the Witch Lake quadrangle, Marquette, Iron, and Baraga Counties, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-987.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 62500
    Fritts 1969 (source 13 of 34)
    Fritts, C.E., 1969, Bedrock geologic map of the Marenisco-Watersmeet area, Gogebic and Ontonagon Counties, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-576.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 48000
    Klasner and others, 1998 (source 14 of 34)
    Klasner, J.S., LaBerge, G.L., Cannon, W.F., 1998, Geologic map of the eastern Gogebic iron range, Gogebic County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2606.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Klasner and Cannon, 1978 (source 15 of 34)
    Klasner, J.S., Cannon, W.F., 1978, Bedrock geologic map of the southern part of the Michigamme and Three Lakes quadrangles, Marquette and Baraga Counties, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1078.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Cannon 1986 (source 16 of 34)
    Cannon, W.F., 1986, Bedrock geologic map of the Iron River 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1369-B.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 250000
    Dutton and Linebaugh, 1967 (source 17 of 34)
    Dutton, C.E., Linebaugh, R.E., 1967, Map showing the Precambrian geology of the Menominee iron-bearing district and vicinity, Michigan and Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-466.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 125000
    Cannon and Klasner, 1977 (source 18 of 34)
    Cannon, W.F., Klasner, J.S., 1977, Bedrock geologic map of the southern part of the Diorite and Champion 7 1/2-minute quadrangles, Marquette County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1058.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 1977
    Clark and others, 1975 (source 19 of 34)
    Clark, L.D., Cannon, W.F., Klasner, J.S., 1975, Bedrock geologic map of the Negaunee SW quadrangle, Marquette County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1226.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 1975
    Cannon and others, 1996 (source 20 of 34)
    Cannon, W.F., Woodruff, L.G., Nicholson, S.W., Hedgman, C.A., 1996, Bedrock geologic map of the Ashland and northern part of the Ironwood 30' x 60' quadrangles, Wisconsin and Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2566.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 100000
    Sims 1990 (source 21 of 34)
    Sims, P.K., 1990, Geologic map of Precambrian rocks of Iron Mountain and Escanaba 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangles, northeastern Wisconsin and northwestern Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2056.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 250000
    Foose 1981 (source 22 of 34)
    Foose, M.P., 1981, Geologic map of the Ned Lake quadrangle, Iron and Baraga Counties, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1284.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 62500
    Sims 1989 (source 23 of 34)
    Sims, P.K., 1989, Geologic map of Precambrian rocks of Rice Lake 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle, northern Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1924.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 250000
    Cannon 1974 (source 24 of 34)
    Cannon, W.F., 1974, Bedrock geologic map of the Greenwood quadrangle, Marquette County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1168.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Sims 1993 (source 25 of 34)
    Sims, P.K., 1993, Structure map of Archean rocks, Palmer and Sands 7 1/2 minute quadrangles, Michigan, showing Great Lakes tectonic zone: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2356.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Dutton 1971 (source 26 of 34)
    Dutton, C.E., 1971, Geology of the Florence area, Wisconsin and Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 633.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Puffett 1974 (source 27 of 34)
    Puffett, W.P., 1974, Geology of the Negaunee quadrangle, Marquette County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 788.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Simmons 1974 (source 28 of 34)
    Simmons, G.C., 1974, Bedrock geologic map of the Ishpeming quandragle, Marquette County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-1130.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Cannon and others 1995 (source 29 of 34)
    Cannon, W.F., Nicholson, S.W., Woodruff, L.G., Hedgman, C.A., Schulz, K.J., 1995, Geologic map of the Ontonagon and part of the Wakefield 30' x 60' quadrangles, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2499.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 100000
    Bodwell 1972 (source 30 of 34)
    Bodwell, W.A., 1972, Marquette-L'Anse region, Baraga and Marquette Counties, Michigan: Geological Series, Map 1, Michigan Technical University, Houghton, Michigan.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 62500
    Mudrey 1979 (source 31 of 34)
    Mudrey, M.G. Jr., 1979, Geological summary of the Ashland 2 degree quadrangle: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 79-1, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Madison, Wisconsin.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 250000
    Snider 1977 (source 32 of 34)
    Snider, D.W., 1977, A ground investigation of an aeromagnetic anomaly in north central Dickinson County, Michigan: Report of Investigation 16, Geological Survey Division, Michigan DNR.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 62500
    Klasner and others, 1979 (source 33 of 34)
    Klasner, J.S., Cannon, W.F., Brock, M., 1979, Bedrock geologic map of parts of the Baraga, Dead River, and Clark Creek basins, Marquette County, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 79-1305.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 62500
    Allen 1914 (source 34 of 34)
    Allen, R.C., 1914, Geologic map of the Precambrian formations of the Gwinn iron bearing district of Michigan: Geological Series 15 (chap. X), Michigan Geological Survey.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 62500
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 1999 (process 1 of 2)
    The Geology of the Penokean Continental Margin was compiled manually on mylar at 100,000 scale using existing printed maps of the area at various scales. The mylar sheets, containing line art of the geologic polygons, faults, and linear features of the region and with tic marks acting as control points at the corners of the 100,000 scale quadrangles bounding neatlines, were then scanned using an Eagle 4080 C scanner into Scansmith Scan-C version 4.2 as lineart at 300 dpi. Within Scansmith View 3.6 the digital line art, now rasterized, was cleaned up with erasing and drawing tools and saved as a tiff image. Within Arc-Info 7.1.1 this tiff image was registered using the bounding coordinates (in decimal degrees) of the corresponding 100,000 scale quadrangles that the geology of the area was drawn upon. The registered tiff image was then rectified and converted to a grid and then a line coverage. The tics of the line coverage were aligned with the control points drawn on the scanned image. These tics were defined by entering the correct coordinates in decimal degrees, and in this way the scanned image, now a line coverage, was stretched into real world coordinates. The line coverage was built to establish topology and then splined to clean up errors that were created in the image to coverage, raster to vector conversion process. For running spline to straighten wavy lines a grain tolerance of 0.003 was commonly employed, however, each individual coverage demanded individual attention. The faults and other linear features of the coverage were selected and removed from the line coverage, placed into a second coverage that would remain a line coverage, and then attributed.
    The remaining lines of the original coverage were then converted into a polygon coverage representing the spatial distribution of the bedrock geology of the area and each polygon was then attributed. In this way twelve sheets, the boundaries of which were defined by the entire or, in some cases, parts of the areas, of the 30x60 minute series 1:100,000 scale topographic quadrangle sheets. Lines representing the geologic melange of the area, were processed and entered into Arc-Info as line coverages, later to be converted into both line and polygon coverages. The twelve bounding 100,000 scale quadrangles were L'Anse, Iron River, Wakefield, Ironwood, Marquette, Gwinn, and Escanaba, with parts of Solon Springs, Spooner, Park Falls, Iron Mountain, and Rhinelander also used. All of these individual polygon and line coverages were united, in the case of the polygon coverages with the command mapjoin, and in the case of the line coverages with append. Corresponding lines and polygon boundaries were matched between adjacent coverages in the most exact manner possible, mostly graphically matching up the lines, though in some cases rubbersheeting using the command adjust was necessary. Within Excel a spreadsheet containing further parameters of the polygon coverages was created. These parameters added to our definition of the polygon coverage. They were: unit_name , map_symbol, explanation, era, period, subperiod, supergroup, group, formation/pluton, member , age, major_rocktype, major_subtype, major_lithology, minor_1_rk_type, minor_1_subtype , minor_1_lith, minor_2_rk_type, minor_2_subtype, minor_2_lith, province, terrane, subterrane, province_age, original_prov, original_subprov, orig_prov_age, environment, and tectonic_setting. These attributes and the corresponding data and information associated with them for the individual polygons were converted into a comma delimited text file and then a look up table within Tables. The look up table was then joined to the polygon attribute table of the polygon coverage to create the final attributed polygon coverage. Digital Line Graphic hydrology (both polygon and line), and transportation data from the 100,000 scale quadrangles listed above was downloaded from the web and merged within Arc-View 3.1 and then added to the coverage. Digital Raster Graphic images from the 100,000 scale quadrangle maps were likewise downloaded, then their edges were clipped and they were entered into the project as a catalogue of images. First draft of metadata created by dottke using FGDCMETA.AML ver. 1.2 05/14/98 on ARC/INFO data set f:\geology\..\pcm_workspc\fgdcmeta12\pcgeo
    Date: 11-Jan-2000 (process 2 of 2)
    Creation of original metadata record Person who carried out this activity:
    Doug Ottke
    USGS National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 954
    Vienna, Virginia
    USA

    703-648-6399 (voice)
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The original manually created hard copy maps on mylar used as the basis for this digital version of the map were compiled at a scale of 1:100,000; therefore, the limiting scale for viewing and displaying this digital map is also 1:100,000. Minor errors become visible at larger scales. Attribute accuracy was tested by manual comparison of the source with hard copy plots and/or symbolized display of the map data on an interactive computer graphic system.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The accuracy of these digital data is based upon their compilation to USGS Digital Line Graph base maps that meet National Map Accuracy Standards. The difference in positional accuracy between the map unit boundaries in the field and their digitized map locations is unknown. The faults coverage is aligned to within approximately 20 meters (ground distance) of the alignment of the associated bedrock geology contacts.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    none applicable
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    All internal polygons were tested for closure with vendor software and were checked on hard copy plots. All line intersections end where intended. All polygon areas are described with the exception of the area which represents Lake Superior. Overshoots and undershoots, as well as small polygons and short lines have been corrected or deleted as needed.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    USGS Information Services
    Box 25286
    Denver Federal Center
    Denver, CO
    USA

    1-888-ASK-USGS (voice)
    303-202-4693 (FAX)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? USGS Open-File Report 99-547
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 14-Jun-2016
Last Reviewed: 11-Jan-2000
Metadata author:
Peter N Schweitzer
USGS Midwest Area
Collection manager, USGS Geoscience Data Clearinghouse, http://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/
Mail Stop 954
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
Reston, VA
USA

703-648-6533 (voice)
703-648-6252 (FAX)
pschweitzer@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/metadata/open-file/99-547/metadata.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.48 on Tue Jul 03 20:07:24 2018