Deposits of the Lake Superior region

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Deposits of the Lake Superior region
Abstract:
This digital map portrays the bedrock geology of the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota taken from the most recent published regional compilations. Some minor modifications and generalizations have been made from the published maps. Information on mineral deposits of the three states is from the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Data System (MRDS).
Version 3.0 supercedes the original report released in 1997. It differs from the original map in having expanded attribute information assigned to geologic units and updated shoreline and state boundaries. The new attributes allow expanded capabilities for producing derivative maps for attributes including stratigraphy, lithology, and tectonic settings. The new shoreline and state bounaries offer greater geographic accuracy than the originally published version.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Cannon, William F., Kress, Thomas H., Sutphin, David M., Morey, G.B., Meints, Joyce, and Barber-Delach, Robert, 1999, Deposits of the Lake Superior region: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-0455.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -97.24
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -82.42
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 49.3856
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.6954
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 1999
    Currentness_Reference:
    publication date of version 3.0
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • entity point
      • complete chain
      • GT-polygon composed of chains
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is Lambert Conformal Conic.
      Projection parameters:
      Standard_Parallel: 33.0
      Standard_Parallel: 45.0
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -88.50
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000
      False_Easting: 0.000
      False_Northing: 0.000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest unkonwn
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest unknown
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is unknown.
      The ellipsoid used is Clarke 1866.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378206.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/294.98.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    SUPERIOR_FLT.AAT
    Faults (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    FAULT_TYPE
    Type of fault or other linear map feature (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    ValueDefinition
    concealed contactConcealed contact whose position is inferred
    concealed faultConcealed fault whose position is inferred
    iron formationIron formation location
    thrustThrust fault
    undeterminedFault type undetermined
    PLOT_CODE
    Plotting code for fault type (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:5
    SOURCE
    Numerical code for original data source for map feature (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    ValueDefinition
    3Sims (1992)
    5Morey (1996)
    SUPERIOR_GLY.PAT
    Geologic map units (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    MGS_CODE
    Minnesota Geological Survey Code as used in state map series (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:442800
    SOURCE
    Numerical code for original data source for map feature (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    ValueDefinition
    1Milstein (1987)
    2Reed and Daniels (1987)
    3Sims (1992)
    4Mudrey and others (1982)
    5Morey (1996)
    ERA
    The geologic era in which the rock unit was formed (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    SYMBOL
    A unique letter symbol identifying each geologic unit as defined under the attribute "unit name" and the attribute "period" (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    ValueDefinition
    AgnGneiss and granite (Late and early Archean)
    CmMunising Formation (Cambrian)
    CtTrempeleau Formation (Cambrian)
    CuCambrian undivided
    DMsSunbury shale (Mississippian - Devonian)
    DaAntrim shale (Devonian)
    DbBerea Sandstone (Devonian)
    DbbBois Blanc Formation (Devonian)
    DbdBedford shale (Devonian)
    DbeBell shale (Devonian)
    DdDundee Limestone (Devonian)
    DdrDetroit River Group (Devonian)
    DeEllsworth shale (Devonian)
    DgGarden Island Formation (Devonian)
    DmMackinac Breccia (Devonian)
    DsSylvania Sandstone (Devonian)
    DtTraverse Group (Devonian)
    DuDevonian sedimentary rocks
    JJurassic sedimentary rocks
    Jrred beds (Jurassic)
    KCretaceous sedimentary rocks
    MbBayport Limestone (Mississippian)
    McColdwater shale (Mississippian)
    MmMarshall Sandstone (Mississippian)
    MmiMichigan Formation (Mississippian)
    OaAncell Group (Ordovician)
    ObBig Hill Dolomite (Ordovician)
    ObrBlack River Limestone (Ordovician)
    OcCollingwood formation (Ordovician)
    OluLower Ordovician sedimentary rocks
    OmMaquoketa formation (Ordovician)
    OmuMiddle Ordovician sedimentary rocks
    OpPrairie du Chien group (Ordovician)
    OqQueenston shale (Ordovician)
    OsStonington Formation (Ordovician)
    OsiSinnippee group (Ordovician)
    OtTrenton Limestone (Ordovician)
    OuUtica Shale (Ordovician)
    OumUpper & Middle Ordovician sed. rocks
    OwrWinnipeg and Red River formations (Ordovician)
    PgGrand River formation (Pennsylvanian)
    PsSaginaw formation (Pennsylvanian)
    PuPaleozoic undivided
    SbBass Island Dolomite (Silurian)
    SbbBurnt Bluff formation (Silurian)
    ScCataract formation (Silurian)
    SeEngadine Dolomite (Silurian)
    SmManistique formation (Silurian)
    SpPoint Aux Chenes Shale (Silurian)
    SsSalina group (Silurian)
    SstSainte Ignace Dolomite (Silurian)
    SuSilurian undivided
    WdDickinson group (Late Archean)
    Wgagniess and amphibolite (Late Archean)
    Wgdpost-tectonic granitic rocks (Late Archean)
    Wgmgranite-rich migmatite (Late Archean)
    Wgngneiss (Late Archean)
    Wgrsyntectonic granitic rocks (Late Archean)
    Wgwgraywacke (Late Archean)
    Wifiron-formation (Late Archean)
    Wmgmetagabbro (Late Archean)
    Wmipost-tectonic mafic intrusions (Late Archean)
    Wmmmixed metavolcanic rocks (Late Archean)
    Wmsmetasedimentary rocks (Late Archean)
    Wmvmafic metavolcanic rocks (Late Archean)
    WpPuritan Quartz Monzonite (Late Archean)
    Wpsparagneiss (Late Archean)
    Wqzrocks of magnetic quiet zone (Late Archean)
    Wsbiotite schist (Late Archean)
    Wsmschist-rich migmatite (Late Archean)
    WstSaganaga Tonalite (Late Archean)
    Wttuff breccian (Late Archean)
    Wvvolcanic undivided (late Archean)
    XAfmylonite (early Proterozoic)
    XagRove, Virginia, Thomson (early Proterozoic)
    XaiBiwabik, Gunflint (early Proterozoic)
    Xammagnetic unit (early Proterozoic)
    XbBadwater Greenstone (early Proterozoic)
    Xbabasaltic breccia (Early Proterozoic)
    XbcBlair Creek Formation (early Proterozoic)
    XbqBarron or Baraboo Quartzite (early Proterozoic)
    XcCopps formation (early Proterozoic)
    XchChocolay group (early Proterozoic)
    Xdvgdacite and graywacke (early Proterozoic)
    XeEmperor Volcanic Complex (early Proterozoic)
    Xffelsic volcanic (early Proterozoic)
    Xftfoliated tonalite (early Proterozoic)
    Xggranitic rocks undivided (early Proterozoic)
    Xgagranitic rocks (early Proterozoic)
    XgatAthelstane Quartz Monzonite (early Proterozoic)
    Xgbgabbro (early Proterozoic)
    XgcCherokee Granite (early Proterozoic)
    Xgdsyntectonic intrustions (early Proterozoic)
    Xgggranite and tonalite (early Proterozoic)
    Xggngranitic gneiss (early Proterozoic)
    Xggrgneissic granite (early Proterozoic)
    Xgngneiss-amphibolite (early Proterozoic)
    XgpPophryritic granite (early Proterozoic)
    Xgralkali-fs granite and late tectonic intrustions (early Proterozoic)
    XgrsSpikehorn Creek Granite (early Proterozoic)
    Xgtgranodiorite-tonalite (early Proterozoic)
    XhHemlock formation (early Proterozoic)
    XiIronwood Iron-formation (early Proterozoic)
    XlfLittle Falls Formation (early Proterozoic)
    XmMichigamme formation (early Proterozoic)
    Xmbmetabasalt (early Proterozoic)
    XmcMiladore volcanics (early Proterozoic)
    Xmdmetadiabase (early Proterozoic)
    XmgMichigamme-graywacke member and metagabbro (early Proterozoic)
    XmiMafic metavolcanic (early Proterozoic)
    Xmibbimodal volcanics (early Proterozoic)
    XmifMichigamme-iron-formation (early Proterozoic)
    Xmiviron-formation (early Proterozoic)
    XmmcMenominee and Choclay groups (early Proterozoic)
    XmnNegaunee Iron-Formation (early Proterozoic)
    XmqTrout Lake, Denham (early Proterozoic)
    XmsMichigamme-slate member (early Proterozoic)
    Xmsametasedimentary rocks and Ajibik and Siama formations (early Proterozoic)
    XmuMenominee group (early Proterozoic)
    Xmvbimodal and Michigamme-volcanic member (early Proterozoic)
    XnrNorth Range group (early Proterozoic)
    Xoppost tectonic intrusions (early Proterozoic)
    XpiRiverton Iron-Formation (early Proterozoic)
    XppPeavy Pond Complex (early Proterozoic)
    XpuPaint River group (early Proterozoic)
    Xqquartzite (early Proterozoic)
    Xqdquartz diorite (early Proterozoic)
    Xrrhyolite (early Proterozoic)
    Xrgrhyolite (early Proterozoic)
    Xrhdrhyolite and dacite (early Proterozoic)
    XsqSioux Quartzite (early Proterozoic)
    Xsvbiotite schist (early Proterozoic)
    XtTyler formation (early Proterozoic)
    Xtgfelsic volcanics (early Proterozoic)
    Xvvolcanic rocks undivided (early Proterozoic)
    Xvsvolcanic-sedimentary unit (early Proterozoic)
    YbbBeaver Bay complex (Middle Proterozoic)
    YcCopper Harbor conglomerate (middle Proterozoic)
    YchChequamegon sandstone (middle Proterozoic)
    YcvCopper Harbor-volcanic member and Chenqwatana volcanics (Middle Proterozoic)
    YdaDuluth Complex (middle Proterozoic)
    YdgDuluth Complex (middle Proterozoic)
    YdiDevils Island sandstone (middle Proterozoic)
    YdlDuluth complex (middle Proterozoic)
    YdtDuluth complex (middle Proterozoic)
    YfFreda Sandstone (middle Proterozoic)
    YflFond do Lac Formation (middle Proterozoic)
    Ygbgabbro (middle Proterozoic)
    Ygpgranophyre (middle Proterozoic)
    Ygrgranite (middle Proterozoic)
    YhHager rhyolite (middle Proterozoic)
    YhfHigh Falls granite (middle Proterozoic)
    YhiHinkley sandstone (middle Proterozoic)
    YhpHager quartz porphyry (middle Proterozoic)
    YjJacobsville sandstone (middle Proterozoic)
    YkKallander creek volcanics (middle Proterozoic)
    YkrKallander creek-ryolite (middle Proterozoic)
    YlLogan Intrustions (middle Proterozoic)
    YnNonesuch formation (middle Proterozoic)
    YnvNorth shore volcanic group (middle Proterozoic)
    YoOrienta sandstone and Olivine gabbro (middle Proterozoic)
    YplrPortage Lake vol-rhyolite (middle Proterozoic)
    YplvPortage lake volcanics (middle Proterozoic)
    YprPorcupine volcanics-rhyolite (middle Proterozoic)
    YpvPorcupine volcanics (middle Proterozoic)
    YsSiemens creek volcanics (middle Proterozoic)
    YssWP-Stettin pluton (middle Proterozoic)
    YwaWRB-anorthosite (middle Proterozoic)
    WwapWP-aplite (middle Proterozoic)
    YwbWRB-Belognia granite (middle Proterozoic)
    YweWP-Big Eau Pleine granite (middle Proterozoic)
    YwgWRB-Wolf river granite (middle Proterozoic)
    YwmWRB-Peshtigo Mangerite (middle Proterozoic)
    YwnWP-Nine Mile Swamp granite (middle Proterozoic)
    YwrWRB-Nine Mile swamp granite (middle Proterozoic)
    YwrWRB-Red river granite (middle Proterozoic)
    YwsWP-quartz syenite (middle Proterozoic)
    YwwgWRB-Waupaca granite (middle Proterozoic)
    (blank)body of water
    PERIOD
    The geological period in which the rock unit was formed (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    SUBPERIOD
    The geological subperiod in which the rock unit was formed (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    SUPERGROUP
    The stratigrpahic supergroup to which a rock unit is assigned (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    GROUP
    The stratigraphic group to which a rock unit has been assigned (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    UNIT_NAME
    Stratigraphic name for rock units. For layered rocks, generally corresponds to formation name. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    AGE
    Radiometric age or age range. Shown only for well constrained units. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    RK_TYPE
    The general lithologic classification for the most abundant rock type in a unit (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    MAJOR_SUBTYPE
    The lithologic subtype of the most abundant rock in a unit (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    MAJOR_LITHOLOGY
    A specific lithologic name for the most abundant rock type in a unit (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    MINOR1_RKTYPE
    The general lithologic classification for a less abundant rock type in a unit (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    MINOR1_SUBTYPE
    The lithologic subtype for a less abundant rock type in a unit (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    MINOR1_LITHOLOGY
    A specific lithologic name for a less abundant rock type in a unit (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    MINOR2_RKTYPE
    The general lithologic classification for a less abundant rock type in a unit (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    MINOR2_SUBTYPE
    The lithologic subtype for a less abundant rock type in a unit (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    MINOR2_LITHOLOGY
    A specific lithologic name for a less abundant rock type in a unit (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    PROVINCE_ORIGIN
    The tectonic province in which rock units were formed (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    SUBPROV_TERRANE
    The tectonic subprovince or terrane in which rock units were formed (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    PROV_AGE
    Geologic age of province in which rock unit formed (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    REWORKING_PROV
    Tectonic province in which older rocks were modified by younger orogenic events (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    REWORKING_SUBPRO
    Tectonic subprovince in which older rocks were modified by younger orogenic events (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    REWORKING_AGE
    Age of younger orogeny that modified older rocks (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    ENV_OF_FORMATION
    The physical environment in which rock units were formed (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    TECTONIC_SETTING
    The tectonic setting in which rock units were formed (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    LITH_ASSEMBLY
    An assemblage of rock types characteristic of a unit (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    SUPERIOR_GLY.PAT
    Geologic map units at specific locations (same attributes as polygon coverage SUPERIOR_GLY.PAT) (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    SUPERIOR_MRDS.PAT
    Mineral resources in mapped area (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    RECNUM
    The Record Number is a unique seven-character alphanumeric code, such as W062456, for each MRDS record. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    SITENAME
    The most recent name given to the ore body, deposit, or property, is entered for a property, mine, prospect, claim, occurrence, group, and so on. If the type is unknown, "occurrence" may be entered after the site name. If the ore body is a subunit of a larger unit, the larger unit name may also be included. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    DISTRICT
    The most recent name of the mining district, subdistrict, or area. One of the words "district", "subdistrict" or "area" may be included for clarification purposes. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    COUNTRY
    The Country in which the deposit is located. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    STATE
    The U.S. State name or foreign country political subdivision in which the deposit is located. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    COUNTY
    The name of the county in which the deposit is located. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    COMMODITY
    This field provides for the listing of known commodities at a given site. The commodity code(s) may be ordered from most important to least important in the following order: major commodities, minor commodities, and trace commodities. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    AGE
    Age of Mineralization The most specific relative geologic age abbreviation for the age of mineralization of the deposit at this site. Early (E) and late (L) are used rather than lower and upper. Multiple entries of absolute ages may be separated with semicolons. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    ROCKTYPE
    The main rock type(s) hosting the deposit at this site. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    ROCKAGE
    The most specific relative geologic age abbreviation for each of the rock types listed. If age is unknown, it has been left blank. Multiple entries of absolute ages per rock may be separated by semicolons (For example: PROT; U/PB ZIRCON 1760 MA; U/PB ZIRCON 1700 MA). Ranges may be separated by hypens (CRET-TERT). (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    DEPSIZE
    The general size of the deposit, if known. S (SMALL), M (MEDIUM), L (LARGE) or U(UNKNOWN). The key words represent different value ranges for the different commodities. Deposit size follows the scheme devised for the metallogenic map of North America (Guild, 1968) and refers to the amount of metal or mineral contained in the deposit at this site (that is, total production PLUS any reserves. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    DEPTYPE
    n/a - data missing (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    PRODUCTION
    The entry options for this field are LARGE, MEDIUM, SMALL, YES, NO, and UNDETERMINED. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    MAJOR
    The most important commodities that have been or are being produced at this site in decreasing order of significance. Most important can mean the following: coproducts; products of greatest economic significance; products most deliberately produced; the products of primary interest. (Source: OFR-97-0455)
    MINOR
    The commodity that are of secondary importance in relation to having been produced at this site. Secondary importance can mean: Byproducts, less abundant product; product of some economic significance; products least deliberately produced and product of least interest. (Source: OFR-97-0455)

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • William F. Cannon
    • Thomas H. Kress
    • David M. Sutphin
    • G.B. Morey
    • Joyce Meints
    • Robert Barber-Delach
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Cannon, William F
    USGS-GEO-ERG-MRS
    Mail Stop 954, USGS
    12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
    Reston, VA
    US

    703-648-6345 (voice)
    wcannon@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This product is intended to provide a regional overview of mineral deposits and their relation to regional geology and is not intended for use at scales greater than 1:500,000.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Milstein (1987) (source 1 of 5)
    Milstein, Randall L. (comp.), 1987, Bedrock geology of southern Michigan: Geological Survey Division, Michigan Dept. of Natural Resources .

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 500000
    Source_Contribution: Bedrock geology of southern Michigan
    Reed and Daniels (1987) (source 2 of 5)
    Reed, Robert C., and Daniels, Jennifer (comp.), 1987, Bedrock geology of Northern Michigan: Geological Survey Division, Michigan Department of natural resources.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 500000
    Source_Contribution: Bedrock geology of Northern Michigan
    Sims (1992) (source 3 of 5)
    Sims, P.K., 1992, Geologic map of Precambrian rocks, southern Lake Superior regoin, Wisconsin and northern Michican: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2185.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 500000
    Source_Contribution:
    Geologic map of the Precambrain rocks in the southern Lake Superior region
    Mudrey and others (1982) (source 4 of 5)
    Mudrey, M.G., Jr., Brown, B.A., and J.K., Greenberg, 1982, Bedrock geologic map of Wisconsin: Wisconsin Geological and Naturan History Survey.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 1000000
    Source_Contribution: Bedrock geologic map of Wisconsin
    Morey (1996) (source 5 of 5)
    (comp.), Morey G.B., 1996, Geologic Map of Minnesota, Bedrock geology:: Minnesota Geological Survey State Map Series S-20.

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 1000000
    Source_Contribution: Bedrock geologic map of Minnesota
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 1997 (process 1 of 2)
    This version differs from the original report released in 1997 in having expanded attribute information and updated shoreline and state boundaries.
    Date: 09-Feb-2004 (process 2 of 2)
    Creation of original metadata record Person who carried out this activity:
    Peter N Schweitzer
    U.S. Geological Survey, ER
    Geologist
    Mail Stop 954
    12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
    Reston, VA
    USA

    703-648-6533 (voice)
    703-648-6252 (FAX)
    pschweitzer@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Various users have had differing requirements for locational precision of deposit sites. The result is that some original records give only approximate locations. We have reviewed the locations for the deposits contained in the included files with the aim of having all deposit locations correct to within 2 seconds of latitude and longitude.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Complete
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Data has been entered into MRDS by a variety of users over more than two decades.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    USGS Information Services
    Box 25286, Denver Federal Center
    Denver, Colorado
    USA

    1-888-ASK-USGS (voice)
    1-303-202-4695 (FAX)
    infoservices@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? US Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-0455
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Although this digital product has been subjected to review and is substantially complete, the USGS reserves the right to revise the product pursuant to further analysis and review. Furthermore, it is released on condition that neither the USGS nor the United States Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from its authorized or unauthorized use.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 10-Jun-2016
Metadata author:
Peter N Schweitzer
USGS Midwest Area
Collection manager, USGS Geoscience Data Clearinghouse, http://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/
Mail Stop 954
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
Reston, VA
USA

703-648-6533 (voice)
703-648-6252 (FAX)
pschweitzer@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/metadata/open-file/97-455/metadata.faq.html>
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