Bedrock, soil, and lichen geochemistry from Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

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What does this data set describe?

Title:
Bedrock, soil, and lichen geochemistry from Isle Royale National Park, Michigan
Abstract:
This is a report of geochemical data from various media collected on Isle Royale, a large island in northeastern Lake Superior. Isle Royale became a national park in 1940 and was designated as a wilderness area in 1976. USGS sampling began in 1996 as part of a larger project on the Midcontinent Rift in the Lake Superior region. Data are given in nine Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. All the data are newly acquired by the USGS.
Supplemental_Information:
The nine data files included with this report are: 1) Volanic_bedrock.xls -- Geochemical analyses of basalt, andesite and rhyolite from the Portage Lake Volanics exposed on Isle Royale 2) Sedimentary_bedrock.xls -- Geochemical analyses of sandstone and conglomerate matrix collected from the Copper Harbor Formation 3) Mineralized_rock.xls -- Geochemical analyses of rocks, sediment, and stamp sands with minor native copper mineralization collected from mineralized veins and mine dumps 4) O_horizon.xls -- Geochemical analyses of organic O-horizon organic material 5) A_horizon.xls -- Geochemical analyses of A-horizon and E-horizon mineral soils 6) C_horizon.xls -- Geochemical analyses of C-horizon mineral soils 7) Lichen.xls -- Geochemical analyses of four lichen species 8) Sargent_Lake_core.xls -- Geochemical analyses of sediment lake core collected from Sargent Lake, Isle Royale 9) Lake_Richie_core.xls -- Geochemical analyses of sediment lake core collected from Lake Richie, Isle Royale
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Woodruff, Laurel G., Cannon, William F., Dicken, Connie L., Bennett, James P., and Nicholson, Suzanne W., 2003, Bedrock, soil, and lichen geochemistry from Isle Royale National Park, Michigan: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-276, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -89.25
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -88.42
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 48.25
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 47.75
  3. What does it look like?
    Figure 1 (jpeg)
    Map showing the location of study area and distribution of soil and lichen sample sites for which analyses are reported.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 1996
    Ending_Date: 2000
    Currentness_Reference:
    This report presents all the geochemical data from samples collected by the USGS from 1996 to 2000.
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Entity point
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.00001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.00001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in decimal degrees.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    A_horizon.xls
    Multi-element chemical analyses for A-horizon soil samples. Includes site identification, latitude, longitude, year the sample was collected, and the estimated thickness of the sampled horizon. File gives quantitative results for 28 elements. Additional elements were analyzed but not reported as they were consistently below detection limits for 90% to 100% of samples tested. These eliminated elements and their detection limits in parts per million are: Ag (2), Au (8), Be (1), Bi (10), Cd (2), Eu (2), Ho (4), Mo (2), Nd (2), Sn (5), Ta (40), Th (6), and U (100). Ga is excluded as the relative percent difference between duplicates were typically > 25%.
    Sample Site
    Unique identification number for sample site
    Latitude
    Latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:47.8
    Maximum:48.2
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.00001
    Longitude
    Longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-88.25
    Maximum:-88.43
    Units:decimal degree
    Resolution:0.00001
    YEAR
    Year sample was collected
    THICKNESS
    Thickness of horizon sampled in centimeters.
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.5
    Maximum:30.5
    Units:centimeters
    Resolution:0.1
    Al %
    Concentration of aluminum in weight percent determined by inductively couple plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.10
    Maximum:9.06
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ca%
    Concentration of calcium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.25
    Maximum:4.62
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Fe %
    Concentration of iron in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomi emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.78
    Maximum:7.33
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    K %
    Concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.11
    Maximum:1.84
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Mg %
    Concentration of magnesium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.20
    Maximum:3.81
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Na %
    Concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.06
    Maximum:2.13
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    P %
    Concentration of phosphorus in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.27
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ti %
    Concentration of titanium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:155
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ba ppm
    Concentration of barium in parts per million by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:44
    Maximum:804
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ce ppm
    Concentration of cerium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:11
    Maximum:75
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Co ppm
    Concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:49
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cr ppm
    Concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:14
    Maximum:226
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cu ppm
    Concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:1300
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    La ppm
    Concentration of lanthanum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:7
    Maximum:44
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Li ppm
    Concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:26
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mn ppm
    Concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:102
    Maximum:7090
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Nb ppm
    Concentration of niobium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.values below detection limit of 4 ppm
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:34
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ni ppm
    Concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 4 ppm
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:110
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Pb ppm
    Concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates values below the detection limit of 4 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:110
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sc ppm
    Concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:30
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sr ppm
    Concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:64
    Maximum:197
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    V ppm
    Concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:38
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Zn ppm
    Concentration of zinc in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:14
    Maximum:599
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    As ppm
    Concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.1
    Maximum:12.6
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Se ppm
    Concentration of selenium in parts per million determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry; b.d. indicates values below the detection limit of 0.6 ppm
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.05
    Maximum:8.6
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    T_C
    Concentration of total carbon in weight percent determined by an automated carbon analyzer; n.a. indicates samples was not analyzed for carbon.
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.11
    Maximum:38.10
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    S %
    Concentration of sulfur in weight percent determined by automated sulfur analyzer; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for sulfur; b.d. indicates content below detection limit of 0.05%.
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.18
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Hg ppm
    Concentration of mercury in parts per million determined by continuous flow-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry; b.d. indicates Hg content below detection limit of 0.02 ppm.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.02
    Maximum:0.37
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    C_horizon.xls
    Multi-element chemical analyses for C-horizon soil samples. Includes site identification, latitude, longitude, year the sample was collected, and the estimated thickness of the sampled horizon. File gives quantitative results for 28 elements. Additional elements were analyzed but not reported as they were consistently below detection limits for 90% to 100% of samples tested. Those eliminated elements and their detection limits in parts per million are: Ag (2), Au (8), Be (1), Bi (10), Cd (2), Eu (2), Ho (4), Mo (2), Nd (2), Sn (5), Ta (40), Th (6), and U (100). Ga is excluded because the relative percent difference between duplicates was consistently >25%.
    Sample Site
    Unique identification number for sample
    Latitude
    Latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:47.85
    Maximum:48.15
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.0001
    Longitude
    Longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-88.45
    Maximum:-89.22
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.0001
    Year
    Year sample was collected
    Collection_depth
    estimated depth in soil pit where sample was collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:10
    Maximum:107
    Units:centimeters
    Resolution:1
    Al %
    Concentration of aluminum in weight percent determined by inductively couple plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.67
    Maximum:9.21
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ca %
    Concentration of calcium in weight percent determined by inductively couple plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.14
    Maximum:7.09
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Fe %
    Concentration of iron in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.94
    Maximum:8.37
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    K %
    Concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.08
    Maximum:2.40
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Mg %
    Concentration of magnesium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.56
    Maximum:5.31
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Na %
    Concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.26
    Maximum:2.35
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    P %
    Concentration of phosphorus in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.25
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ti %
    Concentration of titanium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.17
    Maximum:1.23
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ba ppm
    Concentration of barium in parts per million by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:34
    Maximum:797
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ce ppm
    Concentration of cerium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:13
    Maximum:93
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Co ppm
    Concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:49
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cr ppm
    Concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:14
    Maximum:544
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cu ppm
    Concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:11
    Maximum:1160
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    La ppm
    Concentration of lanthanum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:43
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Li ppm
    Concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:31
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mn ppm
    Concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:188
    Maximum:1790
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Nb ppm
    Concentration of niobium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:33
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ni ppm
    Concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:203
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Pb ppm
    Concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates values below the detection limit of 4 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:27
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sc ppm
    Concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:7
    Maximum:37
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sr ppm
    Concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:59
    Maximum:220
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    V ppm
    Concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:52
    Maximum:252
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y ppm
    Concentration of yttrium parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:38
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Zn ppm
    Concentration of zinc in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:19
    Maximum:134
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    As ppm
    Concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.7
    Maximum:25.2
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Se ppm
    Concentration of selenium in parts per million determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry; b.d. indicates values below the detection limit of 0.6 ppm
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.03
    Maximum:2.70
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Hg ppm
    Concentration of mercury in parts per million determined by continuous flow-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. b.d; indicates Hg content below detection limit of 0.02 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.02
    Maximum:0.27
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Mineralized_rock.xls
    Multi-element chemical analyses for mineralized rock samples collected from native copper mine dumps and mineralized areas on Isle Royale. Includes sample field number, latitude, longitude, and the source of the mineralized rock sample. Quantitative results for 31 elements are included. Nine additional elements were analyzed but not reported as they were consistently below detection limits for 90% to 100% of samples tested. Those elements not included and their detection limits in parts per million are: Au (8), Be (1), Cd (2), Eu (2), Ho (4), Mo (2), Yb (1), and U (100). Ga is excluded because the relative percent difference between duplicates was consistently >25%.
    Field No.
    Unique identification number for sample
    Latitude
    latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:47.91
    Maximum:48.15
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.0001
    Longitude
    Longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-88.50
    Maximum:-89.20
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.0001
    Mineralized_rock_source
    mine dump or area where sample was collected
    Al %
    Concentration of aluminum in weight percent determined by inductively couple plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.20
    Maximum:9.90
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ca %
    Concentration of calcium in weight percent determined by inductively couple plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.80
    Maximum:21.00
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Fe %
    Concentration of iron in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.24
    Maximum:8.70
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Mg %
    Concentration of magnesium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:7.24
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Na %
    Concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:4.00
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    K %
    Concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:6.00
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    P %
    Concentration of phosphorus in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below the detection limit of .0005%.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.11
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ti %
    Concentration of titanium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.99
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ag ppm
    Concentration of silver in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy Values of 1 indicate less than detection limit; b.d. indicates below the detection limit of 2 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:283
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ba ppm
    Concentration of barium in parts per million by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:1900
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Bi ppm
    Concentration of bismuth in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 10 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:12
    Maximum:45
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ce ppm
    Concentration of cerium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 5 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:14
    Maximum:341
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Co ppm
    Concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 2 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:38
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cr ppm
    Concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 2 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:87
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cu ppm
    Concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:84
    Maximum:86,750
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    La ppm
    Concentration of lanthanum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 2 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:168
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Li ppm
    Concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below the detection limit of 2 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:100
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mn ppm
    Concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:181
    Maximum:1350
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Nb ppm
    Concentration of niobium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicate below detection limit of 4 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:8
    Maximum:36
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Nd ppm
    Concentration of neodymium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 9 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:9
    Maximum:120
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ni ppm
    Concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 2 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:137
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Pb ppm
    Concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 4 ppm.
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:72
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sc ppm
    Concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 2 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:36
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sn ppm
    Concentration of tin in parts per million determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 5 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:118
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sr ppm
    concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:27
    Maximum:2000
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ta ppm
    Concentration of tantalum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit below 25 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:25
    Maximum:59
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Th ppm
    Concentration of thorium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 6 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:10
    Maximum:140
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    V ppm
    Concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:20
    Maximum:217
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y ppm
    Concentration of yttrium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 2 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:51
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Zn ppm
    Concentration of zinc in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:71
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Hg ppm
    Concentration of mercury in parts per million determined by continuous flow-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 0.01 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:14.60
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Volcanic_bedrock.xls
    Multi-element chemical analyses for volcanic bedrock samples from Isle Royale. The file includes field numbers for each sample, latitude, longitude, and field rock descriptions. Quantitative results for 49 elements by a number of techniques, including wave-length dispersive X-ray diffraction, instrumental neutron activation by long count, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, columetric titration, and cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.
    Field_No.
    Unique identification number for sample
    Latitude
    Latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:47.93
    Maximum:48.22
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.0001
    Longitude
    Longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-88.35
    Maximum:-89.20
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.0001
    Rock_Description
    Field description of bedrock sample with named volcanic flow, if known.
    SiO2 %
    Concentration of SiO2 in weight percent determined by wave-length dispersive X-ray diffraction.
    Range of values
    Minimum:43.00
    Maximum:73.40
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Al2O3 %
    Concentration of Al2O3 in weight percent determined by wave-length dispersive X-ray diffraction.
    Range of values
    Minimum:11.30
    Maximum:17.70
    Units:weights percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Fe2O3 %
    Concentration of Fe2O3 in weight percent determined by wave-length dispersive X-ray diffraction.
    Range of values
    Minimum:3.20
    Maximum:16.60
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    MnO %
    Concentration of MnO in weight percent determined by wave-length dispersive X-ray diffraction.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.03
    Maximum:0.26
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    MgO %
    Concentration of MgO in weight percent determined by wave-length dispersive X-ray diffraction.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.76
    Maximum:9.08
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    CaO %
    Concentration of CaO in weight percent determined by wave-length dispersive X-ray diffraction.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.27
    Maximum:11.20
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    NaO %
    Concentration of Na2O in weight percent determined by wave-length dispersive X-ray diffraction.
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.77
    Maximum:5.10
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    K2O %
    Concentration of K2O in weight percent determined by wave-length dispersive X-ray diffraction.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.07
    Maximum:6.39
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    P2O5 %
    Concentration of P2O5 in weight percent determined by wave-length dispersive X-ray diffraction; b.d. indicates below the detection limit of 0.006 weight percent.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.11
    Maximum:0.36
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    TiO2 %
    Concentration of TiO2 in weight percent determined by wave-length dispersive X-ray diffraction.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.36
    Maximum:2.96
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    LOI %
    Lost on Ignition percent determined during analysis by wave-length dispersive X-ray diffraction.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.61
    Maximum:4.89
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Fe %
    Concentration of iron in weight percent determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.33
    Maximum:12.6
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    K %
    Concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count; b.d. indicates values below the detection limit of 100 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.32
    Maximum:5.18
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Na %
    Concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.40
    Maximum:4.04
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    As ppm
    Concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count; b.d. indicates below the detection limit of 0.1 ppm.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.2
    Maximum:3.1
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Ba ppm
    Concentration of barium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:47
    Maximum:3380
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ce ppm
    Concentration of cerium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:13
    Maximum:140
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Co ppm
    Concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:63
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cr ppm
    Concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:13
    Maximum:294
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cs ppm
    Concentration of cesium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count; b.d indicates below detection limit of 0.05 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.09
    Maximum:2.31
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Eu ppm
    Concentration of europium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.82
    Maximum:2.74
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Hf ppm
    Concentration of hafnium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.34
    Maximum:14.00
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Ho ppm
    Concentration of holmium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.65
    Maximum:3.10
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    La ppm
    Concentration of lanthanum in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:67
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Lu ppm
    concentration of lutetium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.23
    Maximum:1.18
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Nd ppm
    Concentration of neodymium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:8
    Maximum:63
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ni ppm
    Concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count; b.d indicates below the detection limit of 10 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:34
    Maximum:280
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Rb ppm
    Concentration of rubidium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count; b.d indicates below the detection limit of 0.5 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:122
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sb ppm
    Concentration of antimony in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count; b.d indicates below the detection limit of 0.5 ppm.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.2
    Maximum:13.7
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Sc ppm
    Concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count; b.d indicates below the detection limit of 0.5 ppm.
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.0
    Maximum:40.7
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Sm ppm
    Concentration of samarium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.3
    Maximum:13.7
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Sr ppm
    Concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:83
    Maximum:822
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ta ppm
    Concentration of tantalum in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.3
    Maximum:3.1
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Tb ppm
    Concentration of terbium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.4
    Maximum:2.2
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Th ppm
    Concentration of thorium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.3
    Maximum:22.7
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    U ppm
    Concentration of uranium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.2
    Maximum:5.2
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Yb ppm
    Concentration of ytterbium in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.6
    Maximum:8.4
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Zn ppm
    Concentration of zinc in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 1 ppm.
    Range of values
    Minimum:38
    Maximum:150
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Zr ppm
    Concentration of zircon in parts per million determined by instrumental neutron activation by long count.
    Range of values
    Minimum:55
    Maximum:526
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cu ppm
    Concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:17
    Maximum:2330
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ga ppm
    Concentration of gallium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:32
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Li ppm
    Concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:55
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Pb ppm
    Concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:15
    Maximum:47
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sn ppm
    Concentration of tin in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 5 ppm.
    Range of values
    Minimum:7
    Maximum:42
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    V ppm
    Concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:19
    Maximum:404
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y ppm
    Concentration of yttrium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:15
    Maximum:75
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    S %
    Concentration of sulfur in weight percent determined by automated sulfur analyzer; b.d. indicates below the detection limit of 0.05%.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.02
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    CO2 %
    Concentration of carbonate in weight percent determined by columetric titration.
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.30
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Hg ppm
    Concentration of mercury in parts per million determined by continuous flow cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry; b. d. indicates below the detection limit of 0.02 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.10
    Maximum:0.10
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Sedimentary_bedrock.xls
    Multi-element chemical analyses for sedimentary rock samples collected on Isle Royale. Includes sample field number, latitude, longitude, and a description of the rock sample. Quantitative results for 27 elements are included. Additional elements were analyzed but not reported as they were consistently below below detection limits for 90% to 100% of samples tested. Those elements not included and their detection limits in parts per million are: Ag (2), Au (8), Be (1), Bi (10), Cd (2), Eu (2), Ga (4), Ho (4), Mo (4), Sn (50), Ta (40), and U (100). Ga is not included because of poor relative percent difference between duplicates.
    Field No.
    unique sample identification number
    Latitude
    latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:48.08
    Maximum:48.11
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.00001
    Longitude
    longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-88.58
    Maximum:-88.62
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.00001
    Rock Description
    description of the rock sample
    Al %
    concentration of aluminum in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.24
    Maximum:5.04
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ca %
    concentration of calcium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.12
    Maximum:0.21
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Fe %
    concentration of iron in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.08
    Maximum:4.29
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    K %
    concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.46
    Maximum:3.16
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Mg %
    concentration of magnesium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.25
    Maximum:0.32
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Na %
    concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.06
    Maximum:1.7
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    P %
    concentration of phosphorus in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.04
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ti %
    concentration of titanium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.31
    Maximum:0.32
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ba ppm
    concentration of barium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:824
    Maximum:1030
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ce ppm
    concentration of cerium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:79
    Maximum:99
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cr ppm
    concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:16
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cu ppm
    concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:53
    Maximum:76
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    La ppm
    concentration of lanthanum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:24
    Maximum:34
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Li ppm
    concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:10
    Maximum:13
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mn ppm
    concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:272
    Maximum:303
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Nb ppm
    concentration of niobium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:11
    Maximum:30
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Nd ppm
    concentration of neodymium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:17
    Maximum:38
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Pb ppm
    concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:22
    Maximum:28
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sc ppm
    concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:6
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sr ppm
    concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:80
    Maximum:111
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Th ppm
    concentration of thorium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:10
    Maximum:18
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    V ppm
    concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:43
    Maximum:55
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y ppm
    concentration of yttrium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:35
    Maximum:49
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Yb ppm
    concentration of ytterbium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:5
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Zn ppm
    concentration of zinc in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:74
    Maximum:103
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    As ppm
    concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.7
    Maximum:4.4
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Se ppm
    concentration of selenium in parts per million determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 0.2 ppm
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.2
    Maximum:0.2
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Hg ppm
    concentration of mercury in parts per million determined by continuous flow-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.03
    Maximum:0.09
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    O_horizon.xls
    Multi-element analyses of organic materials collected from the forest floor and analyzed at the University of Wisconsin Plant and Soil Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin. Samples were also analyzed at the USGS laboratories in Denver, CO for mercury. File includes sample site, latitude, longitude, year collected, descriptions of the forest floor material, (including dominate tree type and general character of the organic material), horiz on, which distinguishes between Oi (forest litter) and Oe (forest duff or humic material), as well as quantitative analyses for 24 elements and determination of % ash from both the University of Wisconsin and the USGS.
    Sample Site
    unique identification number for sample
    Latitude
    latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:47.85
    Maximum:48.19
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.00001
    longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-88.43
    Maximum:-89.22
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.00001
    Year
    Year collected
    Forest Floor Material Comment
    dominant tree type in sample area and general character of organic material at the forest surface
    Horizon
    horizon classification of sample
    ValueDefinition
    Oiforest litter
    Oeforest duff or humic material
    Al ppm
    concentration of aluminum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:379
    Maximum:22345
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    B ppm
    concentration of boron in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element; b.d. indicates below detection
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.5
    Maximum:49.7
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Ca ppm
    concentration of calcium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:3174
    Maximum:30238
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cu ppm
    concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element; b.d. indicates below detection
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:3.2
    Maximum:75.4
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Fe ppm
    concentration of iron in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:469
    Maximum:41631
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Hg ppm
    concentration of mercury in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element; b.d. indicates below detection
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.06
    Maximum:0.62
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    K ppm
    concentration of potassium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:550
    Maximum:4725
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mg ppm
    concentration of magnesium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:658
    Maximum:9379
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mn ppm
    concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:154
    Maximum:8745
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mo ppm
    concentration of molybdenum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.2
    Maximum:1.3
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Na ppm
    concentration of sodium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element; b.d. indicates below detection
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:12.2
    Maximum:405.6
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    P ppm
    concentration of phosphorus in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:294
    Maximum:1541
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    S ppm
    concentration of sulfur in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:443
    Maximum:2413
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Zn ppm
    concentration of zinc in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates sample was not analyzed for that element
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:29
    Maximum:608
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    As ppm
    concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.22
    Maximum:6.13
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Cd ppm
    concentration of cadmium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.11
    Maximum:3.81
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Co ppm
    concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.82
    Maximum:25.32
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Cr ppm
    concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.92
    Maximum:37.23
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Ni ppm
    concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:5.41
    Maximum:249.63
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Pb ppm
    concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.58
    Maximum:81.35
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Se ppm
    concentration of selenium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.64
    Maximum:16.82
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Ti ppm
    concentration of titanium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:34.63
    Maximum:1640.00
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    V ppm
    concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.58
    Maximum:111.19
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Hg ppm
    concentration of mercury in parts per million determined by continuous flow cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry at the USGS laboratories in Denver, CO; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.05
    Maximum:0.53
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    % Ash
    percent ash determined by the University of Wisconsin Plant and Soil Analyses Laboratory, Madison, WI; n.a. indicates not analyzed (equivalent to not ashed)
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed (equivalent to not ashed)
    Range of values
    Minimum:5.4
    Maximum:80.2
    Units:percent
    Resolution:0.1
    % Ash
    percent ash determined by the USGS laboratories in Denver, CO; n.a. indicates not analyzed (equivalent to not ashed)
    Range of values
    Minimum:22.4
    Maximum:94.4
    Units:percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Lichens.xls
    Multi-element chemical analyses of four lichen species: Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia plysodes, Parmelia sucata, and Cladina rangiferina. Lichens were analyzed at the University of Wisconsin Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory, Madison, WI. File is organized by element and subdivided by lichen species.
    Sample Site
    unique location for lichen collecting site
    Latitude
    latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:47.84
    Maximum:48.19
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.00001
    Longitude
    longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-88.42
    Maximum:-89.22
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.00001
    Year
    year sample was collected
    Epiphytic lichen comments
    description of trees where epiphytic lichens were collected
    Al ppm
    concentration of aluminum in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:143
    Maximum:672
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Al ppm
    concentration of aluminum in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates lichen not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:176
    Maximum:582
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Al ppm
    concentration of aluminum in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:266
    Maximum:1328
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Al ppm
    concentration of aluminum in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:115
    Maximum:1031
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    B ppm
    concentration of boron in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.8
    Maximum:24.2
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    B ppm
    concentration of boron in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.9
    Maximum:25.7
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    B ppm
    concentration of boron in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:3.7
    Maximum:27.0
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    B ppm
    concentration of boron in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.4
    Maximum:20.1
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Ca ppm
    concentration of calcium in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:396
    Maximum:11574
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ca ppm
    concentration of calcium in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:12740
    Maximum:63927
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ca
    concentration of calcium in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:3123
    Maximum:9190
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ca ppm
    concentration of calcium in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:345
    Maximum:1649
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cu ppm
    concentration of copper in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.12
    Maximum:7.32
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Cu ppm
    concentration of copper in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.52
    Maximum:11.89
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Cu ppm
    concentration of copper in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:3.53
    Maximum:19.73
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Cu ppm
    concentration of copper in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.92
    Maximum:3.26
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Fe ppm
    concentration of iron in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:182
    Maximum:1203
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Fe ppm
    concentration of iron in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:233
    Maximum:959
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Fe ppm
    concentration of iron in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:358
    Maximum:1611
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Fe ppm
    concentration of iron in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:105
    Maximum:1390
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    K ppm
    concentration of potassium in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1357
    Maximum:3856
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    K ppm
    concentration of potassium in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:2004
    Maximum:4831
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    K ppm
    concentration of potassium in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:1996
    Maximum:5574
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    K ppm
    concentration of potassium in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:926
    Maximum:2911
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mg ppm
    concentration of magnesium in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:226
    Maximum:544
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mg ppm
    concentration of magnesium in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:499
    Maximum:1405
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mg ppm
    concentration of magnesium in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:358
    Maximum:859
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mg ppm
    concentration of magnesium in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:227
    Maximum:583
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mn ppm
    concentration of manganese in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:13
    Maximum:111
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mn ppm
    concentration of manganese in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:39
    Maximum:363
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mn ppm
    concentration of manganese in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:37
    Maximum:273
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mn ppm
    concentration of manganese in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:13
    Maximum:297
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Na ppm
    concentration of sodium in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:7
    Maximum:141
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Na ppm
    concentration of sodium in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:11
    Maximum:59
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Na ppm
    concentration of sodium in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:9
    Maximum:110
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Na ppm
    concentration of sodium in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:10
    Maximum:137
    Units:part per million
    Resolution:1
    P ppm
    concentration of phosphorous in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:400
    Maximum:1764
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    P ppm
    concentration of phosphorous in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:518
    Maximum:1795
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    P ppm
    concentration of phosphorous in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:822
    Maximum:2757
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    P ppm
    concentration of phosphorous in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:366
    Maximum:1256
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    S ppm
    concentration of sulfur in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:622
    Maximum:2135
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    S ppm
    concentration of sulfur in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:701
    Maximum:1983
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    S ppm
    concentration of sulfur in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:933
    Maximum:1983
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    S ppm
    concentration of sulfur in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:345
    Maximum:670
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Zn ppm
    concentration of zinc in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:17
    Maximum:55
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Zn ppm
    concentration of zinc in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:44
    Maximum:122
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Zn ppm
    concentration of zinc in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:47
    Maximum:146
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Zn ppm
    concentration of zinc in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:11
    Maximum:30
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    As ppm
    concentration of arsenic in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.25
    Maximum:1.65
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    As ppm
    concentration of arsenic in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.29
    Maximum:1.65
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    As ppm
    concentration of arsenic in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.41
    Maximum:1.75
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    As ppm
    concentration of arsenic in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined b
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.04
    Maximum:0.55
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Cd ppm
    concentration of cadmium in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.07
    Maximum:0.38
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Cd ppm
    concentration of cadmium in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.53
    Maximum:1.97
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Cd ppm
    concentration of cadmium in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.16
    Maximum:0.88
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Cd ppm
    concentration of cadmium in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.06
    Maximum:0.23
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Co ppm
    concentration of cobalt in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.10
    Maximum:0.34
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Co ppm
    concentration of cobalt in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.33
    Maximum:1.25
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Co ppm
    concentration of cobalt in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.19
    Maximum:0.72
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Co ppm
    concentration of cobalt in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.06
    Maximum:0.48
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Cr ppm
    concentration of chromium in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.49
    Maximum:1.79
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Cr ppm
    concentration of chromium in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.45
    Maximum:1.83
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Cr ppm
    concentration of chromium in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.45
    Maximum:2.13
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Cr ppm
    concentration of chromium in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.24
    Maximum:2.51
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Mo ppm
    concentration of molybdenum in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.06
    Maximum:0.42
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Mo ppm
    concentration of molybdenum in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.09
    Maximum:0.33
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Mo ppm
    concentration of molybdenum in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.10
    Maximum:0.52
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Mo ppm
    concentration of molybdenum in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.03
    Maximum:0.13
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Ni ppm
    concentration of nickel in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.6
    Maximum:3.6
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Ni ppm
    concentration of nickel in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:3.1
    Maximum:20.9
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Ni ppm
    concentration of nickel in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.4
    Maximum:8.6
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Ni ppm
    concentration of nickel in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.3
    Maximum:1.8
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Pb ppm
    concentration of lead in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.2
    Maximum:10.8
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Pb ppm
    concentration of lead in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.5
    Maximum:20.1
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Pb ppm
    concentration of lead in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:5.3
    Maximum:30.4
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Pb ppm
    concentration of lead in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.6
    Maximum:4.3
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Se ppm
    concentration of selenium in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.04
    Maximum:1.97
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Se ppm
    concentration of selenium in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.20
    Maximum:2.28
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Se ppm
    concentration of selenium in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.18
    Maximum:2.89
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Se ppm
    concentration of selenium in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.14
    Maximum:0.73
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Ti ppm
    concentration of titanium in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:32
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ti ppm
    concentration of titanium in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:10
    Maximum:35
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ti ppm
    concentration of titanium in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:10
    Maximum:39
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ti ppm
    concentration of titanium in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:105
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    V ppm
    concentration of vanadium in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.4
    Maximum:2.7
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    V ppm
    concentration of vanadium in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.7
    Maximum:2.7
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    V ppm
    concentration of vanadium in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.2
    Maximum:4.3
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    V ppm
    concentration of vanadium in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.2
    Maximum:4.1
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Hg ppm
    concentration of mercury in ppm in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.r. indicates not reported
    ValueDefinition
    n.r.not reported
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.15
    Maximum:0.67
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Hg ppm
    concentration of mercury in ppm in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.r. indicates not reported
    ValueDefinition
    n.r.not reported
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.13
    Maximum:0.36
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Hg ppm
    concentration of mercury in ppm in lichen species Parmelia sucata determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.r. indicates not reported
    ValueDefinition
    n.r.not reported
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.11
    Maximum:0.31
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Hg ppm
    concentration of mercury in ppm in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy; n.c. indicates lichen was not collected; n.r. indicates not reported
    ValueDefinition
    n.c.not collected
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.02
    Maximum:0.03
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Ash %
    Percent ash in lichen species Evernia mesomorpha; n.a. indicates sample not analyzed (essentially, not ashed)
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed (not ashed)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.3
    Maximum:80.2
    Units:percent
    Resolution:0.1
    Ash %
    Percent ash in lichen species Hypogymnia plysodes; n.a. indicates sample not analyzed (essentially, not ashed)
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed (not ashed)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.7
    Maximum:12.6
    Units:percent
    Ash %
    Percent ash in lichen species Parmelia sucata; n.a. indicates sample not analyzed (essentially, not ashed)
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed (not ashed)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.1
    Maximum:7.9
    Units:percent
    Resolution:0.1
    Ash %
    Percent ash in lichen species Cladina Rangiferina; n.a. indicates sample not analyzed (essentially, not ashed); n.c. indicates not collected
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    n.c.not collected
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.4
    Maximum:43.1
    Units:percent
    Resolution:0.1
    Sargent_Lake_core.xls
    Multi-element chemical compositions lake sediment core collected from a series of 1-meter cores from a single borehole in Sargent Lake, Isle Royale. Includes field number; sample descriptions, estimated depth (in centimeters) from the top of the water-sediment interface (sample depths increase with depth down hole), and quantitative results for 31 elements. Additional elements were analyzed but are not reported as they were consistently below detection limit for 90% to 100% of samples tested. Those eliminated elements and their detection limits in parts per million are: Ag (2), Au (8), Be (1), Bi (10), Cd (2), Eu (2), Ho (4), Mo (2), Sn (5), Ta (40), U (100) and Yb (1). Ga is not included as the relative percent difference between duplicates were consistently >25%.
    Field Number
    unique sample identification for each split of core material
    Sample Description
    Core number (number from top of hole to bottom, source of sampled core material, and description of core material
    Estimated depth
    Estimated depth of core material measured from the top of the sediment-water interface.
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.5
    Maximum:418.5
    Units:centimeters
    Resolution:0.1
    Al %
    concentration of aluminum in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:4.30
    Maximum:9.30
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ca %
    concentration of calcium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.51
    Maximum:2.69
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Fe %
    concentration of iron in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:3.59
    Maximum:6.21
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    K %
    concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.52
    Maximum:2.76
    Units:wieght percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Mg %
    concentration of magnesium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.25
    Maximum:2.70
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Na %
    concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.80
    Maximum:1.36
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    P %
    concentration of phosphorous in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.06
    Maximum:0.12
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ti %
    concentration of titanium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.32
    Maximum:0.65
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ba ppm
    concentration of barium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:184
    Maximum:628
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ce ppm
    concentration of cerium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:30
    Maximum:130
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Co ppm
    concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:18
    Maximum:27
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cr ppm
    concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:32
    Maximum:159
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cu ppm
    concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:55
    Maximum:256
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    La ppm
    concentration of lanthanum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:20
    Maximum:56
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Li ppm
    concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:9
    Maximum:79
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mn ppm
    concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:481
    Maximum:830
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Nb ppm
    concentration of niobium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:25
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Nd ppm
    concentration of neodymium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:15
    Maximum:53
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ni ppm
    concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:57
    Maximum:78
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Pb ppm
    concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 4 ppm
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:42
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sc ppm
    concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:18
    Maximum:22
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sr ppm
    concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:105
    Maximum:187
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Th ppm
    concentration of thorium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 6 ppm
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:24
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    V ppm
    concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:130
    Maximum:177
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y ppm
    concentration of yttrium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:20
    Maximum:29
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Zn ppm
    concentration of zinc in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:82
    Maximum:121
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    As ppm
    concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.9
    Maximum:9.3
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Se ppm
    concentration of selenium in parts per million determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.3
    Maximum:4.7
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Carbonate C %
    concentration of carbonate carbon in weight percent determined by columetric titration; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 0.01%
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.04
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Total C %
    concentration of total carbon in weight percent determined by automated carbon analyzer; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.61
    Maximum:17.80
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    S %
    concentration of sulfur in weight percent determined by automated sulfur analyzer; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 0.05%; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.05
    Maximum:0.54
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Hg ppm
    concentration of mercury in parts per million determined by continuous flow cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.03
    Maximum:0.14
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    Lake_Richie.xls
    Multi-element chemical compositions lake sediment core collected from a series of 1-meter cores from a single borehole in Sargent Lake, Isle Royale. Includes field number; sample descriptions, estimated depth (in centimeters) from the top of the water-sediment interface (sample depths increase with depth down hole), and quantitative results for 31 elements. Additional elements were analyzed but are not reported as they were consistently below detection limit for 90% to 100% of samples tested. Those eliminated elements and their detection limits in parts per million are: Ag (2), Au (8), Be (1), Bi (10), Cd (2), Eu (2), Ho (4), Mo (2), Sn (5), Ta (40), U (100) and Yb (1). Ga is not included as the relative percent difference between duplicates were consistently >25%.
    Field No.
    unique sample identification for each split of core material
    Sample Description
    Core number (number from top of hole to bottom, source of sampled core material, description of core material
    Estimated depth
    Estimated depth of core material measured from the top of the sediment-water interface.
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.5
    Maximum:553.0
    Units:centimeters
    Resolution:0.1
    Al %
    concentration of aluminum in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:5.11
    Maximum:8.98
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ca %
    concentration of calcium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.53
    Maximum:4.69
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Fe %
    concentration of iron in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:3.80
    Maximum:5.99
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    K %
    concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.03
    Maximum:2.63
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Mg %
    concentration of magnesium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.32
    Maximum:2.75
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Na %
    concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.85
    Maximum:1.90
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    P %
    concentration of phosphorous in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.07
    Maximum:011
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ti %
    concentration of titanium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.36
    Maximum:0.63
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ba ppm
    concentration of barium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:297
    Maximum:579
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ce ppm
    concentration of cerium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:51
    Maximum:143
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Co ppm
    concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:14
    Maximum:25
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cr ppm
    concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:43
    Maximum:167
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Cu ppm
    concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:37
    Maximum:152
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    La ppm
    concentration of lanthanum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:25
    Maximum:61
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Li ppm
    concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:18
    Maximum:72
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Mn ppm
    concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:467
    Maximum:1060
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Nb ppm
    concentration of niobium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 4 ppm
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:25
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Nd ppm
    concentration of neodymium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:21
    Maximum:60
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Ni ppm
    concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:35
    Maximum:70
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Pb ppm
    concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 4 ppm
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:15
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sc ppm
    concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:14
    Maximum:22
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Sr ppm
    concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:122
    Maximum:223
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Th ppm
    concentration of thorium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 6 ppm
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:7
    Maximum:25
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    V ppm
    concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:117
    Maximum:176
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y ppm
    concentration of yttrium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:20
    Maximum:32
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Zn ppm
    concentration of zinc in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:45
    Maximum:124
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    As ppm
    concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.9
    Maximum:13.7
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Se ppm
    concentration of selenium in parts per million determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 0.6 ppm
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.2
    Maximum:1.9
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    Carbonate_C %
    concentration of carbonate carbon in weight percent determined by columetric titration; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 0.01%
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:1.09
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Total_C %
    concentration of total carbon in weight percent determined by automated carbon analyzer; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.24
    Maximum:11.2
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.1
    S %
    concentration of sulfur in weight percent determined by automated sulfur analyzer; b.d. indicates below detection limit of 0.05%; n.a. indicates not analyzed
    ValueDefinition
    b.d.below detection
    n.a.not analyzed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.05
    Maximum:0.24
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Hg ppm
    concentration of mercury in parts per million determined by continuous flow cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.03
    Maximum:0.16
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Laurel G. Woodruff
    • William F. Cannon
    • Connie L. Dicken
    • James P. Bennett
    • Suzanne W. Nicholson
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    U.S. Geological Survey
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Laurel Woodurff
    Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2280 Woodale Drive
    Mounds View, Minnesota
    USA

    763.783.3291 (voice)
    woodruff@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

USGS sampling on Isle Royale began in 1996 as part of a larger project on the geology of the Midcontinent rift in the Lake Superior region and continued through 2000. Sampling began with collecting bedrock samples to characterize the geochemistry of the volcanic rocks that make up the much of the island, as well as samples representative of the minor native copper mineralization found on the island. Preliminary results from the bedrock study indicated, among other findings, that basaltic bedrock on the island had no detectable mercury, but that there was an association between native copper mineralization and trace amounts of mercury (Cannon and Woodruff, 1999). This finding and the recognition by the National Park Service that 6 of 32 inland lakes on Isle Royale have mercury levels in game fish that exceed State of Michigan acceptable levels for human consumption (Kallemeyn, 2000) resulted in renewed sampling on the island focused more on environmental issues.
To evaluate atmospheric inputs of mercury and other elements to soil geochemistry, regionally distributed samples of both soils and lichens were collected as paired samples across the entire island. At each soil sample site, three epiphytic (grows in trees) lichen species, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia plysodes, and Parmelia sucata, were always collected. At some sites Cladina rangiferina, a lichen that grows on bare bedrock and soil surfaces, was also collected. The occurrence of Cladina rangiferina on the island is more limited, and so this lichen species was not collected at all sites
A high density of soil samples was collected within three individual watersheds (Sargent Lake, Lake Wagejo, and Lake Richie) for a more localized study that evaluated the terrestrial distribution of mercury and other elements of environmental concern. These lakes were chosen using data from Kallemeyn (2000) that showed that Sargent Lake and Lake Wagejo have high mercury in fish, whereas Lake Richie, which is similar in size to Sargent Lake, does not. As part of this study on the terrestrial contribution of mercury to lakes, long cores of lake sediments were recovered from Sargent Lake and Lake Richie using a modified Livingston piston sampler.
For an ancillary study that evolved from the study on the distribution of mercury in certain watersheds, some soil samples were collected to evaluate the impact of forest fire on soil geochemistry, deliberately sampling within and outside areas on the island that burned in severe forest fires in 1936. To complete bedrock sampling on the island, rock samples from the Copper Harbor Formation, a sedimentary unit that occurs on the southeastern part of the island were collected in 1999.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    (process 1 of 4)
    Sample collection:
    Geochemical sample media include bedrock, mineralized rock, lake sediments, different soil horizons and four species of lichens (Figures 2 and 3). Because of restrictions on sampling within a wilderness park, rock samples were collected from mine dumps or loose blocks obviously fallen from outcrop. All rock samples were trimmed in the field to remove weathered material, and further trimmed and hand selected during preparation to minimize contribution from weathered or altered surfaces. Samples of native copper mineralized rock typically were composite chip samples collected from mine dumps. Descriptions recorded in the field are included in the data files.
    Reconnaissance soil sample sites typically were from upland areas. Within the Sargent Lake and Lake Richie watersheds both upland and lowlands (but not wetland) sites were sampled. Soil samples were collected from soil pits dug with a shovel and extended with a hand auger. Sample pits were completed to the C-horizon or to a depth dictated by the presence of impenetrable rock. From each pit, soil from different horizons was collected so that each sample site has multiple geochemical analyses, each representing a different soil layer. All samples were stored in perforated polyethylene bags (Hubco Tyvek®). During the first year of soil sampling, which concentrated within the Sargent Lake and Lake Wagejo watersheds, material from the O-horizon was not collected.
    The O-horizon is the organic matter that lies on top of a mineral soil. The organic layer is divided into Oi (forest litter), Oe (forest duff) and Oa (humus) horizons. Forest litter is not decomposed, and contains identifiable dead plant material. Forest duff is partially decomposed organic material that may underlie the litter layer. Humus is completely decomposed, non-identifiable organic material. At each soil sample site, with the exceptions noted above, Oe-horizon material was collected, if available. Field descriptions discriminate between forest litter that is not decomposed and more decomposed forest duff, but do not attempt to distinguish duff from humus. Samples from Oe-horizons typically were grab samples collected from the soil plug removed from the sample pit. Litter material, when collected, was composited from material in the area of the sample site. The nature of the original material (e.g., needles versus leaves) was noted, as were the dominant tree species.
    The upper mineral soils typically were classified as A-horizon, indicating some accumulation of organic carbon, and were distinguished from underlying soil horizons by changes in color. A-horizon soils were collected from most sample sites, with material composited from the entire thickness of the horizon. At some sites, a very thin A-horizon overlay an E-horizon, a zone of eluviation, easily distinguished by its light, buff or gray color. A limited number of E-horizon samples were also collected when little or no A-horizon soil was present.
    Subsoil samples typically were composed of weathered parent material, which, on Isle Royale, is either bedrock or glacial deposits on bedrock. The depth of collection for C-horizon soil samples in areas of thin glacial cover typically was constrained by the depth to bedrock, with samples collected immediately above the bedrock surface. In areas of thick glacial cover, collection depths usually were 60 80 cm, which typically was the depth to parent glacial material. In a few cases, multiple samples were collected when obvious changes in color or texture were noted.
    Lichen samples were collected by hand from trees in the immediate vicinity of soil sample sites and from bedrock, if available. The three epiphytic lichen species collected, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia plysodes, and Parmelia sucata, are easy to identify in the field and do not require chemical tests for identification. Each lichen species was picked separately and cleaned as well as possible in the field. Epiphytic lichens were collected without gloves only from evergreen species, with one exception in a hardwood maple forest where no evergreen trees were present. At a site, all three species were collected from multiple individuals of a single tree species (e.g., white spruce or balsam fir), but the single tree species varied from site to site, depending on availability. The result of this sampling method is collection of multiple thalli representing an aggregate sample from several trees in an area. Picking extended from near ground level to as high as could be reached when standing on the ground, approximately 1.5 2 meters. Lichens picked from dead or downed trees may have originally been higher in the air prior to tree mortality and are so noted. Cladina rangiferina was collected from bedrock surfaces by hand. Only fresh, apparently healthy lichen were picked in the field. At each site, about 20 grams of lichen was stored in perforated polyethylene bags (Hubco Tyvek®). Samples were air dried to ambient moisture levels prior to shipping to the USGS National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wisconsin for analysis.
    Lake sediment samples from Sargent Lake and Lake Richie were collected using a modified Livingston piston sampler (Wright, 1967). To obtain the cores, researchers from the USGS flew to Isle Royale in the winter of 1999 in a U.S. Forest Service Beaver seaplane, landing on the ice of each lake. Lake sediment core was obtained through the ice from near the deepest part of each lake, using lake bathymetry maps as guides. The coordinates for the site on Sargent Lake are: latitude 48.0820; longitude 88.6548. The coordinates for the site on Lake Richie are: latitude 48.0420; longitude 88.6930. Care was taken to sample from areas away from shore and where the lake bottom was relatively flat. At each lake the coring procedures were similar. After augering a hole through the ice, the depth of the water was measured with a Vexilar® portable sounder. Core was recovered through 11 meters of water in Sargent Lake and 9.75 meters of water in Lake Richie. To obtain the first core from an undisturbed bottom, the piston core apparatus was lowered to the sediment/water interface (using 2 meter extension drive rods) and then advanced the depth of the 1 meter core barrel. Prior to removing the piston corer, a sleeve of 15 cm (diameter) PVC was assembled and lowered through the hole in the ice around the drive rods and piston corer to act as a casing and guide for successive cores. The casing was pushed about 30 cm into the lake bottom to provide a firm anchor. With the casing in place, the piston corer was removed, and the 1 meter core extracted. Each core was immediately wrapped in plastic and aluminum foil and stored in a core box. The piston corer was then reintroduced into the original hole through the casing, and advanced another length of the core barrel (1 meter). The procedure was repeated until 5 meters of core were collected from Sargent Lake and 6 meters of core were collected from Lake Richie. Visual inspection of the cores as they were removed suggested little or no slumping in the borehole, although some compaction in the core was apparent. The length of available drive rods limited the length of core recovery at Sargent Lake, but at Lake Richie coring ended when advancement of the core barrel through compacted sediment was no longer possible. Both sets of long cores were split lengthwise immediately following fieldwork, and one half was preserved and the other half was further split for geochemical analysis
    (process 2 of 4)
    Sample preparation:
    Rocks: Rocks were crushed to 0.5 cm fragments in a jaw crusher and fed into a ceramic plate pulverizer where fragments were reduced to approximately minus 100-mesh. Each pulverized sample was split, with a portion submitted for geochemical analysis and a portion archived. Clean quartz rock and sand were crushed and pulverized between samples to minimize cross-contamination.
    Soils: Soil samples were air-dried and disaggregated in a soil grinder, if necessary. Samples were then sieved to <63 micrometers prior to analysis. Samples were not ground.
    Lake Sediment Cores: The top meter of core from each lake was composited in 5 cm intervals. Samples from the remaining cores from each lake were collected in 2 cm intervals every 10 cm. Splits were placed in trace-element-free cardboard cans and dried overnight in a 50o C oven. Prior to analysis, samples were completely pulverized in a shatter-box.
    Lichen and O-horizon: Upon arrival in Madison, Wisconsin, lichens and O-horizon organic material were extracted from the bags. Lichen samples were manually cleaned of debris, bark, and other foreign matter. Handling of tissue was with bare hands, which were washed between samples. Hand contact with tissues was only a few seconds for each thallus. Two to four grams of cleaned samples were placed in clear plastic bags and labeled for chemical analyses. Both lichen and O-horizon samples were ground to a powder in a stainless steel Wiley ED-5 mill using a 2 mm screen. After grinding the samples were placed in plastic vials and either stored in a desiccator or re-dried just prior to weighing for analysis.
    (process 3 of 4)
    Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy.
    Forty major, minor, and trace elements are determined in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The sample is decomposed using a mixture of hydrochloric, nitric, perchloric, and hydrofluoric acids at low temperature. The digested sample is aspirated into the ICP-AES discharge where the elemental emission signal is measured simultaneously for the forty elements. Calibration is performed by standardizing with digested rock reference materials and a series of multi-element solution standards.
    The 40 elements analyzed are listed below with their reporting ranges. For samples containing less than the lower limit of detection, the notation b.d. (below detection) is entered into the value field.
    Element Concentration Range
    Aluminum, Al 0.005 - 50%
    Calcium, Ca 0.005 - 50%
    Iron, Fe 0.02 - 25%
    Potassium, K 0.01 - 50%
    Magnesium, Mg 0.005 - 5%
    Sodium, Na 0.005 - 50%
    Phosphorous, P 0.005 - 50%
    Titanium, Ti 0.005 - 25%
    Silver, Ag 2 - 10,000 ppm
    Arsenic, As 10 - 50,000 ppm
    Gold, Au 8 - 50,000 ppm
    Barium, Ba 1 - 35,000 ppm
    Beryllium, Be 1 - 5,000 ppm
    Bismuth, Bi 50 - 50,000 ppm
    Cadmium, Cd 2 - 25,000 ppm
    Cerium, Ce 5 - 50,000 ppm
    Cobalt, Co 2 - 25,000 ppm
    Chromium, Cr 2 - 25,000 ppm
    Copper, Cu 2 - 15,000 ppm
    Europium, Eu 2 - 5,000 ppm
    Gallium, Ga 4 - 50,000 ppm
    Holmium, Ho 4 - 5,000 ppm
    Lanthanum, La 2 - 50,000 ppm
    Lithium, Li 2 - 50,000 ppm
    Manganese, Mn 4 - 50,000 ppm
    Molybdenum, Mo 2 - 50,000 ppm
    Niobium, Nb  4  - 50,000 ppm
    Neodymium, Nd 9 - 50,000 ppm
    Nickel, Ni 3 - 50,000 ppm
    Lead, Pb 4 - 50,000 ppm
    Scandium, Sc 2 - 50,000 ppm
    Tin, Sn 50 - 50,000 ppm
    Strontium, Sr 2 - 15,000 ppm
    Tantalum, Ta 40 - 50,000 ppm
    Thorium, Th 6 - 50,000 ppm
    Uranium, U 100 - 100,000 ppm
    Vanadium, V 2 - 30,000 ppm
    Yttrium, Y 2 - 25,000 ppm
    Ytterbium, Yb 1 - 5,000 ppm
    Zinc, Zn 2 - 15,000 ppm
    
    MERCURY ANALYZED BY CONTINUOUS FLOW-COLD VAPOR ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY For determination of mercury a 0.1g of sample is digested using a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids. Potassium permanganate, sulphuric acid and potassium persulphate are added to the solution, followed by a NaCl-hydroxylamine solution and then the solution is diluted to 25mL. It is mixed thoroughly, allowed to settle and then transferred to the auto sampler rack of the Perkin-Elmer Flow Injection Mercury System, FIMS-100. The FIMS-100 is a cold-vapor atomic absorption mercury analyzer, which determines the mercury concentration in a solution after it has been liberated as vapor using stannous chloride reducing agent. The absorption of the sample is measured using a mercury lamp at 253.7nm. The lower reporting limit of 0.02 ppm mercury. Samples containing less than 0.02 ppm are assigned a value of 0.01 in the data tables.
    ARSENIC ANALYSIS BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY Arsenic was determined by weighing 0.1 g of sample into a zirconium crucible. Approximately 0.75 g of sodium peroxide is added and mixed. The mixture is heated in a muffle furnace set at 750°C for four minutes. The sample is cooled then 15 ml of water and 5 ml of concentrated HCl is added. The mixture is shaken and 0.25 ml of an ascorbic acid KI solution is added then diluted with 20% HCl and let to stand overnight. Arsenic is then measure using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimum concentration range without sample dilution is 0.6 ppm to 20 ppm.
    SELENIUM ANALYSIS BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY Selenium is determined by weighing .25 g of sample into a test tube, adding a mixture of nitric, hydrofluoric and perchloric acids and heating. After the solution is cooled hydrochloric and nitric are added, heated again and cooled. The samples are diluted and analyzed using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The expected analytical range for selenium is 0.2 to 4 ppm.
    TOTAL CARBON ANALYSIS BY AUTOMATED CARBON ANALYZER Total carbon is determined by the use of an automated carbon analyzer. A weighed sample is combusted in an oxygen atmosphere at 1370°C to oxidize carbon to carbon dioxide. Moisture and dust are removed and the carbon dioxide gas is measured by a solid state infrared detector.
    CARBONATE CARBON ANALYSIS BY COLUMETRIC TITRATION Carbonate carbon is determined as carbon dioxide by coulometric titration. The sample is treated with hot 2N perchloric acid and the evolved carbon dioxide is passed into a cell containing a solution of monoethanolamine. The carbon dioxide, quantitatively absorbed by the monoethanolamine, is coulometrically titrated using platinum and silver/potassium-iodide electrodes. The lower reporting limit is 0.01% carbon dioxide and samples containing up to 50% carbon dioxide may be analyzed. Sample size is adjusted from 0.5 g for the range 0.01 to 5% carbon dioxide, 0.1 g for the range 5 to 10% carbon dioxide, and 0.02 g for greater than 10% carbon dioxide
    Organic carbon is calculated as the difference between total carbon and carbonte carbon,
    TOTAL SULFUR ANALYSIS BY AUTOMATED SULFUR ANALYZER Total sulfur is determined by using an automated sulfur analyzer. Approximately 0.25 g of sample is mixed with iron chips and LECOCEL and is heated in a combustion tube in a stream of oxygen at high temperature. Sulfur is oxidized to sulfur dioxide. Moisture and dust are removed and the sulfur dioxide gas is then measured by a CS-244 infrared detector.
    WAVE-LENGTH DISPERSIVE X-RAY DIFFRACTION (WDXRF) Ten major elements were determined in rocks by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The sample is first ignited, then fused with lithium tetraborate and the resultant glass disc is introduced into a wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The disc is irradiated with X-rays from an X-ray tube. X-ray photons emitted by the elements in the sample are counted and concentrations determined using previously prepared calibration standards. In addition to 10 major elements, the method provides a gravimetric loss-on-ignition.
    The reporting ranges for WDXRF are:
    Element Lower limit of detection (%)
    SiO2 		0.04
    Al2O3 		0.04
    Fe2O3 		0.01
    MgO 		0.03
    CaO 		0.003
    Na2O 		0.06
    K2O 		0.006
    TiO2 		0.003
    P2O5 		0.006
    MnO 		0.001
    
    INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION BY LONG COUNT (INAA) Some trace elements in rocks were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. INAA selectively measures radioactive nuclide activity produced by nuclear reactions on naturally occurring isotopes. The activity of the indicator radionuclide produced during irradiation is directly proportional to the amount of the element in the sample. The analytical determination is made by comparing the induced activity in the sample with well-characterized standards activated under identical conditions of neutron flux. The activities of the samples and standards are measured using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Gamma-ray radiation emitted by a radionuclide is converted to an electrical signal by a semiconductor detector. A multichannel analyzer analyzes the electrical signal. Semiconductor detectors, such as high-purity and lithium-drifted germanium detectors, are used to exploit their high resolution. Spectra produced are analyzed by software that locates and identifies peaks, and calculates the area of each peak.
    The reporting ranges for INAA are:
    Element Lower limit of detection (ppm)
    K		100
    Ba 		100
    Fe 		10
    Ni 		10
    Sr 		10
    Zr 		10
    Na 		1
    Zn 		1
    Cr 		0.5
    Nd 		0.5
    Rb		0.1
    As 		0.1
    Co 		0.05
    Cs 		0.05
    Ho 		0.05
    Sb 		0.05
    Sm 		0.05
    Th 		0.05
    U 		0.05
    Yb 		0.05
    Eu 		0.01
    Hf 		0.01
    La 		0.01
    Lu 		0.01
    Sc 		0.01
    Ta 		0.01
    Tb 		0.01
    Au		0.0005
    
    Date: 26-Jun-2003 (process 4 of 4)
    Creation of original metadata record Person who carried out this activity:
    Laurel G. Woodruff
    U.S. Geological Survey
    U.S. Geological Survey
    2280 Woodale Drive
    Mounds View, MN
    USA

    763.783.3291 (voice)
    763.783.3103 (FAX)
    woodruff@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    USGS ANALYSES -- Samples analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey includes all analyses contained in the data files Volcanic_bedrock.xls, Sedimentary_bedrock.xls, Mineralized_rock.xls, A_horizon.xls, C_horizon.xls, Sargent_Lake_core.xls, and Lake_Richie_core.xls. Analytical results were compared to results for standard reference materials. Data quality checks were performed both at an analytical laboratory (XRAL) and by the USGS. The first level of quality control checks occurred at XRAL. XRAL Laboratories is accredited to the ISO 9002, 1994 standard (ANSI-RAB 01298 and NACB 9555). The laboratory's quality control protocol is to insert a reagent blank and a reference sample material with every batch of 20 samples to measure the analytical accuracy. Duplicate samples are analyzed at the end of the sample set to measure analytical variance as well as sample variance. Data passing the quality control criteria was sent to the USGS and imported into the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS).
    The second level of data validation was performed at the USGS. All samples submitted to XRAL are accompanied with a set of USGS in-house reference samples submitted at the rate of 10%. Using a program within the LIMS, the data for the reference samples was evaluated by comparing the "obtained" analytical value to the "expected" value for each element. The values must fall within the range of acceptance, which varies between +/- 5% to +/-20% depending on the analytical method.
    UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN ANALYSES -- Samples analyzed by Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin include O_horizon.xls and Lichen_xls. Analytical results were compared to results for standard reference materials. The first level of quality control checks occurred at the Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory through the use of duplicates, blanks, and reference standards.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    All sample sites were located using a GPS instrument. Maximum observed variation in repeated GPS readings taken at the same site is in the fourth decimal place (0.000x degree) and estimated positional accuracy is approximately +/- 50 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Data set is complete
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Any hardcopies utilizing these data sets shall clearly indicate their source. If the user has modified the data in any way they are obligated to describe the type of modification they have performed. User specifically agrees not to misrepresent these data sets, nor to imply that changes they have made were approved by the U.S Geological Survey.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 23-Feb-2015
Metadata author:
Peter N Schweitzer
USGS Midwest Area
Collection manager, USGS Geoscience Data Clearinghouse, http://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/
Mail Stop 954
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
Reston, VA
USA

703-648-6533 (voice)
703-648-6252 (FAX)
pschweitzer@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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