The geochemical landscape of northwestern Wisconsin and adjacent parts of northern Michigan and Minnesota (geochemical data files)

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What does this data set describe?

Title:
The geochemical landscape of northwestern Wisconsin and adjacent parts of northern Michigan and Minnesota (geochemical data files)
Abstract:
This report contains geochemical data gathered in the Ashland and Rice Lake 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangles in northern Wisconsin and adjacent parts of northern Michigan and Minnesota. The data, in part, is focused on the Chequamegon National Forest. Nine files are presented which contain more than 2,600 multi-element analyses of soils, stream sediments, and lake-bottom sediments.
Data include a mixture of newly acquired data by the USGS and previously reported data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The report thus provides a single-source summary in similar and consistent format of a majority of currently available analyses of surficial materials in this region. Files are presented in DBF format which can be readily imported to GIS programs such as Arcview, and as MS-Excel spreadsheets.
The files include:
A_soil        326 analyses of A-horizon soils (new USGS data)
B_soil         44 analyses of B-horizon soils (new USGS data)
C_soil        455 analyses of C-horizon soils (new USGS data)
E_soil         35 analyses of E-horizon soils (new USGS data)
USGS_ls        96 analyses of lake-bottom sediments (new USGS data)
NURE_ls       361 analyses of lake-bottom sediments (NURE data)
NURE_original 913 analyses of stream sediments (NURE data)
NURE_rean     400 reanalyses of NURE stream sediments (new USGS data)
NUREss_adj    913 stream sediment analyses from the NURE data
                  recalculated based on comparison with NURE_rean results
Together, these data serve to describe the complexity of the surficial geochemical landscape of the glaciated terranes of this part of the Lake Superior region. Both graphic displays, as in Arcview, and statistical analyses can be conducted to meet a variety of end-user needs and address a multitude of environmental and resource issues.
Supplemental_Information:
This data set consists of the following dBase and equivalent MS Excel spreadsheets:
A_soil.dbf:        326 multi-element chemical analyses of A-horizon soils
B_soil.dbf:         44 multi-element chemical analyses of B-horizon soils
C_soil.dbf:        455 multi-element chemical analyses of C-horizon soils
E_soil.dbf:         35 multi-element chemical analyses of E-horizon soils
NURE_original.dbf: 913 multi-element chemical analyses of stream sediments
NURE_rean.dbf:     400 multi-element chemical analyses of stream sediments
NUREss_adj.dbf:    913 recalculated  chemical analyses of stream sediments
USGS_ls.dbf:        96 multi-element analyses of lake-bottom sediments
NURE_ls.dbf:       361 multi-element analyses of lake-bottom sediments
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Cannon, William F., and Woodruff, Laurel G., 2003, The geochemical landscape of northwestern Wisconsin and adjacent parts of northern Michigan and Minnesota (geochemical data files): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-259, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -92.0000
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -90.0000
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 47.0000
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 45.0000
  3. What does it look like?
    Sample location map (jpeg)
    Map showing the location of study area and distribution of soil, stream sediment and lake sediment samples for which analyses are reported.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 1978
    Ending_Date: 2000
    Currentness_Reference:
    Data were acquired over a span of more than 20 years. Data in NURE_original and NURE_ls are analyses done in 1978-79 on samples collected those same years. Data in A_soil, B_soil, C_soil, an E_soil are analyses done from 1997-2000 on samples collected from about 1985-1990 for Forest Service samples and from 1996-2000 for USGS samples. Data in NURE_rean are analyses conducted in 1997. Data in USGS_lsed are analyses conducted in 2000 on samples collected that same year.
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: data tables
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Entity point
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.0001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.0001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in decimal degrees.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    A_soil.dbf
    Multi-element chemical analyses for A-horizon soil samples. Includes site ID and lat/long. Quantitative results for 31 elements. 11 additional elements were analyzed but reported below detection limit for 90% to 100% of samples tested. Those elements and their detection limits in parts per million are: Ag(2), Au(8), Be(1), Bi(50), Cd(2), Eu(2), Ho(4), Mo(2), Sn(50), Ta(40), U(100).
    Sample_no
    Unique identification number for sample text identifier without scientific significance
    SAMP_SOURC
    Agency responsible for sample collection
    ValueDefinition
    FSUSDA Forest Service
    USGSU.S. Geological Survey
    X_COORD
    Longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-90
    Maximum:-92
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.0001
    Y_COORD
    Attribute_Domain_Values
    Range of values
    Minimum:45
    Maximum:47
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.0001
    DEPTH_AVE
    Average depth of interval sampled
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.50
    Maximum:36.50
    Units:inches
    Resolution:1
    Depth_rng
    depth of top and bottom of sampled interval in inches typically a top and bottom in inches, sometimes followed by a word descriptive of the material
    HORIZON
    designation of soil horizon
    ValueDefinition
    Acode from standard soil nomenclature
    AL
    concentration of aluminum in percent determined by inductively couple plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.105
    Maximum:8.385
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    AS
    concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.20
    Maximum:13.40
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    BA
    concentration of barium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:212
    Maximum:1250
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CA
    concentration of calcium in percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.075
    Maximum:3.084
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    CE
    concentration of cerium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:19
    Maximum:97
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CO
    concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:38
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CR
    concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:876
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CU
    concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:155
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    FE
    concentration of iron in percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.42
    Maximum:7.24
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ga
    concentration of gallium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 3 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    3Proxy value for samples reporting less than the detection limit of 4 ppm
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:26
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Hg
    concentration of total mercury in parts per million determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Values of 0.01 indicate below detection limit of 0.02 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    0.01Proxy value for samples reporting less than the detection limit of 0.02 ppm
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.30
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    K
    concentration of potassium in percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.72
    Maximum:2.23
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    LA
    concentration of lanthanum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:9
    Maximum:44
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    LI
    concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:35
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    MG
    concentration of magnesium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.039
    Maximum:1.520
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    MN
    concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:56
    Maximum:6610
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NA
    concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.135
    Maximum:1.174
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    NB
    concentration of niobium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 3 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    3proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:16
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ND
    concentration of neodymium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 5 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    5proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 9 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:41
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NI
    concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 2 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    2proxy value assigned samples reporting less than 3 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:82
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    P
    concentration of phosphorous in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.005
    Maximum:0.514
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:1
    PB
    concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:64
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SC
    concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:22
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SE
    concentration of selenium in parts per million determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.10
    Maximum:2.00
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    SR
    concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:30
    Maximum:141
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TH
    concentration of thorium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 4 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    4proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than 6 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:28
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TI
    concentration of titanium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.085
    Maximum:1.393
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    V
    concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:16
    Maximum:162
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y
    concentration of yttrium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:39
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    YB
    concentration of ytterbium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:3
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ZN
    concentration of ytterbium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:7
    Maximum:844
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    B_soil.dbf
    Multi-element chemical analyses for B-horizon soil samples. Includes site ID and lat/long. Quantitative results for 31 elements. 11 additional elements were analyzed but reported below detection limit for 90% to 100% of samples tested. Those elements and their detection limits in parts per million are: Ag(2), Au(8), Be(1), Bi(50), Cd(2), Eu(2), Ho(4), Mo(2), Sn(50), Ta(40), U(100).
    Sample_no
    Unique identification number for sample text identifier without scientific significance
    SAMP_SOURC
    Agency responsible for sample collecting
    ValueDefinition
    FSUSDA Forest Service
    X_COORD
    Longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-90
    Maximum:-92
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.0001
    Y_COORD
    Latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:45
    Maximum:47
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.001
    DEPTH_AVE
    Average depth of interval sampled
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.50
    Maximum:36.50
    Units:inches
    Resolution:1
    Depth_rng
    depth of top and bottom of sampled interval in inches typically a top and bottom in inches, sometimes followed by a word descriptive of the material
    HORIZON
    designation of soil horizon
    ValueDefinition
    Acode from standard soil nomenclature
    AL
    concentration of aluminum in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.283
    Maximum:6.677
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    AS
    concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.00
    Maximum:29.2
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    BA
    concentration of barium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:165
    Maximum:738
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CA
    concentration of calcium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.213
    Maximum:5.715
    Units:percent
    Resolution:0.001
    CE
    concentration of cerium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:20
    Maximum:107
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CO
    concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:49
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CR
    concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:37
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CU
    concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:82
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    FE
    concentration of iron in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy:
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.73
    Maximum:11.8
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ga
    concentration of gallium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 3 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    3proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:13
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Hg
    concentration of total mercury in parts per million determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Values of 0.01 indicate below detection limit of 0.02 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    0.01Proxy value for samples reporting less than the detection limit of 0.02 ppm
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.17
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    K
    concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.380
    Maximum:2.870
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    LA
    concentration of lanthanum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:9
    Maximum:48
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    LI
    concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:18
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    MG
    concentration of magnesium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.081
    Maximum:2.894
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    MN
    concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:56
    Maximum:6610
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NA
    concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.135
    Maximum:1.174
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    NB
    concentration of niobium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 3 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    3Proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:16
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ND
    concentration of neodymium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 5 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    5Proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 9 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:72
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NI
    concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 2 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    2Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 3 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:82
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    P
    concentration of phosphorous in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.005
    Maximum:0.514
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:1
    PB
    concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:64
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SC
    concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:32
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SE
    concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.10
    Maximum:0.7
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    SR
    concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:35
    Maximum:220
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TH
    concentration of thorium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 4 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    4Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than 6 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:8
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TI
    concentration of titanium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.088
    Maximum:1.679
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    V
    concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:22
    Maximum:249
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y
    concentration of yttrium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:8
    Maximum:80
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    YB
    concentration of ytterbium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Proxy values assigned samples reporting less than 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:6
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ZN
    concentration of ytterbium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:9
    Maximum:624
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    C_soil.dbf
    Multi-element chemical analyses for C-horizon soil samples. Includes site ID and lat/long. Quantitative results for 31 elements. 11 additional elements were analyzed but reported below detection limit for 90% to 100% of samples tested. Those elements and their detection limits in parts per million are: Ag(2), Au(8), Be(1), Bi(50), Cd(2), Eu(2), Ho(4), Mo(2), Sn(50), Ta(40), U(100).
    Sample_no
    Unique identification number for sample text identifier without scientific significance
    SAMP_SOURC
    agency responsible for collecting sample
    ValueDefinition
    FSUSDA Forest Service
    X_COORD
    Longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-90
    Maximum:-92
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.0001
    Y_COORD
    latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:45
    Maximum:47
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.001
    DEPTH_AVE
    Average depth of interval sampled
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.50
    Maximum:36.50
    Units:inches
    Resolution:1
    Depth_rng
    depth of top and bottom of sampled interval in inches typically a top and bottom in inches, sometimes followed by a word descriptive of the material
    HORIZON
    designation of soil horizon
    ValueDefinition
    Acode from standard soil nomenclature
    AL
    concentration of aluminum in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.800
    Maximum:8.400
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    AS
    concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.10
    Maximum:18.90
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    BA
    concentration of barium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:157
    Maximum:783
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CA
    concentration of calcium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.095
    Maximum:2.585
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    CE
    concentration of cerium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:17
    Maximum:167
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CO
    concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:27
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CR
    concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:118
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CU
    concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy Values of 1 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:100
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    FE
    concentration of iron in percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy:
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.300
    Maximum:6.720
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    Ga
    concentration of gallium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 3 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    3proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:24
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Hg
    concentration of total mercury in parts per million determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Values of 0.01 indicate below detection limit of 0.02 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    0.01Proxy value for samples reporting less than the detection limit of 0.02 ppm
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.12
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    K
    concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.78
    Maximum:2.96
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    LA
    concentration of lanthanum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:9
    Maximum:55
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    LI
    concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:40
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    MG
    concentration of magnesium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.075
    Maximum:1.760
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    MN
    concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:57
    Maximum:4120
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NA
    concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.090
    Maximum:1.742
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    NB
    concentration of niobium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 3 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    3Proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:15
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ND
    concentration of neodymium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 5 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    5Proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 9 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:49
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NI
    concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 2 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    2Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 3 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:84
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    P
    concentration of phosphorous in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.005
    Maximum:0.221
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PB
    concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:48
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SC
    concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:22
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SE
    concentration of selenium in parts per million determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.10
    Maximum:1.8
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    SR
    concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:25
    Maximum:212
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TH
    concentration of thorium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 4 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    4Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than 6 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:20
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TI
    concentration of titanium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.054
    Maximum:1.187
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    V
    concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:11
    Maximum:236
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y
    concentration of yttrium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:7
    Maximum:38
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    YB
    concentration of ytterbium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Proxy values assigned samples reporting less than 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:5
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ZN
    concentration of zinc in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:207
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    E_soil.dbf
    Multi-element chemical analyses for E-horizon soil samples. Includes site ID and lat/long. Quantitative results for 31 elements. 11 additional elements were analyzed but reported below detection limit for 90% to 100% of samples tested. Those elements and their detection limits in parts per million are: Ag(2), Au(8), Be(1), Bi(50), Cd(2), Eu(2), Ho(4), Mo(2), Sn(50), Ta(40), U(100).
    Sample_no
    Unique identification number for sample text identifier without scientific significance
    SAMP_SOURC
    Agency responsible for collecting sample
    ValueDefinition
    FSUSDA Forest Service
    X_COORD
    Longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-90
    Maximum:-92
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.0001
    Y_COORD
    latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:45
    Maximum:47
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.001
    DEPTH_AVE
    Average depth of interval sampled
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.50
    Maximum:22.0
    Units:inches
    Resolution:1
    Depth_rng
    depth of top and bottom of sampled interval in inches typically a top and bottom in inches, sometimes followed by a word descriptive of the material
    HORIZON
    designation of soil horizon
    ValueDefinition
    Acode from standard soil nomenclature
    AL
    concentration of aluminum in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.443
    Maximum:5.499
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    AS
    concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.0
    Maximum:8.5
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    BA
    concentration of barium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:274
    Maximum:815
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CA
    concentration of calcium in percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.129
    Maximum:1.012
    Units:percent
    Resolution:0.001
    CE
    concentration of cerium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:19
    Maximum:73
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CO
    concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:28
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CR
    concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:39
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CU
    concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy Values of 1 indicate less than detection limit.
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:22
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    FE
    concentration of iron in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy:
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.30
    Maximum:6.72
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    Ga
    concentration of gallium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 3 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    3proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:12
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Hg
    concentration of total mercury in parts per million determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Values of 0.01 indicate below detection limit of 0.02 ppm.
    ValueDefinition
    0.01Proxy value for samples reporting less than the detection limit of 0.02 ppm
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.14
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    K
    concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.09
    Maximum:2.07
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    LA
    concentration of lanthanum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:10
    Maximum:39
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    LI
    concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:21
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    MG
    concentration of magnesium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.073
    Maximum:0.727
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    MN
    concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:126
    Maximum:3450
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NA
    concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.199
    Maximum:1.294
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    NB
    concentration of niobium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 3 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    3Proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:14
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ND
    concentration of neodymium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 5 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    5Proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than 9 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:32
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NI
    concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 2 indicate below detection limit.
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:23
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    P
    concentration of phosphorous in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.009
    Maximum:0.070
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PB
    concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:8
    Maximum:26
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SC
    concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:9
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SE
    concentration of selenium in parts per million determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.14
    Maximum:1.00
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    SR
    concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:36
    Maximum:145
    Units:parts per million
    TH
    concentration of thorium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 4 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    4Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than 6 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:10
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TI
    concentration of titanium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.172
    Maximum:0.510
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    V
    concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:29
    Maximum:107
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y
    concentration of yttrium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:7
    Maximum:21
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    YB
    concentration of ytterbium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:7
    Maximum:21
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ZN
    concentration of zinc in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:207
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    usgs_ls.dbf
    Multi-element chemical analyses for lake-bottom sediment samples. Includes site ID, lake name, water depth at sample site, and lat/long. Quantitative results for 36 elements. 10 additional elements were analyzed but reported below detection limit for 90% to 100% of samples tested. Those elements and their detection limits in parts per million are: Ag(2), Au(8), Be(1), Bi(50), Cd(2), Eu(2), Ho(4), Sn(50), Ta(40), U(100).
    SAMPLE
    unique identifying number for sample identifier without scientific significance
    LAKE_NAME
    name of lake from which sample was collected geographic name
    DEPTH
    depth of water at sample site in feet
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.0
    Maximum:40.0
    Units:feet
    Resolution:1
    X_COORD
    longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-91.92237
    Maximum:-90.06391
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.0001
    Y_COORD
    latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:45.10781
    Maximum:46.79576
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.0001
    AL
    concentration of aluminum in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.955
    Maximum:5.385
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    AS
    concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.75
    Maximum:66.70
    Units:ppm
    Resolution:0.01
    BA
    concentration of barium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:109
    Maximum:508
    Units:ppm
    Resolution:1
    CA
    concentration of calcium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.247
    Maximum:1.748
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    C_ORG
    concentration of organic carbon in weight percent
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.29
    Maximum:36.28
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    C_CRBNT
    concentration of carbonate carbon in weight percent determined by coulometric titration
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:0.26
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    C_TOT
    concentration of total carbon in weight percent determined by automated carbon analyzer
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.29
    Maximum:36.30
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    CE
    concentration of cerium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:9
    Maximum:82
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CO
    concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:18
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CR
    concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:13
    Maximum:101
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CU
    concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:71
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    FE
    concentration of iron in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.43
    Maximum:17.20
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    GA
    concentration of gallium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 3 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    3Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:21
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    HG
    concentration of total mercury determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Values of 0.014 indicate les than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    0.014Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 0.02 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.014
    Maximum:0.360
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    K
    concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.14
    Maximum:2.11
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    LA
    concentration of lanthanum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:44
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    LI
    concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:26
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    MG
    concentration of magnesium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.114
    Maximum:1.155
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    MN
    concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:85
    Maximum:4450
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    MO
    concentration of molybdenum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:7
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NA
    concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.060
    Maximum:1.043
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    NB
    concentration of niobium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 3 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    3Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:22
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ND
    concentration of neodymium parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 6 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    6Proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than the 9 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:60
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NI
    concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 2 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    2Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 3 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:35
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    P
    concentration of phosphorous in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.010
    Maximum:0.380
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PB
    concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:9
    Maximum:69
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    S
    concentration of sulfur in weight percent determined by automated sulfur analyzer
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.04
    Maximum:1.46
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.04
    SC
    concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Proxy values assigned samples reporting less than the 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:12
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SE
    concentration of selenium in parts pr million determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Values of 0.14 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    0.14Proxy value assigned to samples reporting les than the 0.2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.14
    Maximum:5.00
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    SR
    concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:22
    Maximum:133
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TH
    concentration of thorium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 4 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    4Proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than the 6 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:9
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TI
    concentration of titanium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.054
    Maximum:0.449
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    V
    concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:17
    Maximum:290
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y
    concentration of yttrium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:34
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    YB
    concentration of ytterbium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:3
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ZN
    concentration of zinc in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:10
    Maximum:445
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    nure_ls.dbf
    Multi-element chemical analyses for lake-bottom sediment samples collect during the NURE program. Includes site ID, lake name, and lat/long. Quantitative results for 10 elements.
    ID
    unique sample identification number identifier without scientific significance
    LAKENAME
    name of lake from which sample was collected geographic name
    X_COORD
    longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-91.995
    Maximum:-90.012
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.001
    Y_COORD
    latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:45.005
    Maximum:46.796
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.001
    QUAD
    name of NTMS quadrangle containing sample site
    ValueDefinition
    Ashland 
    Ricelake 
    U3O8
    concentration of uranium oxide (U3O8) in parts per million
    ValueDefinition
    -9999.9value assigned to samples for which analysis was not performed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.4
    Maximum:28.0
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    LOI__
    loss on ignition in weight percent
    ValueDefinition
    -999value assigned to samples for which analyses were not performed
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:86
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:1
    AS
    concentration of arsenic in parts per million
    ValueDefinition
    -9999.9value assigned to samples for which analysis was not performed
    3Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 5 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:45.0
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CU
    concentration of copper in parts per million
    ValueDefinition
    -9999value assigned to samples for which analyses were not performed
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:495
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    MO
    concentration of molybdenum in parts per million. Values of 0.5 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    0.5Proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than the 1 ppm detection limit
    -9999value assigned to samples for which analyses was not performed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.5
    Maximum:54.0
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NI
    concentration of nickel in parts per million
    ValueDefinition
    -9999value assigned to samples for which analyses were not performed
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:1000
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    PB
    concentration of lead in parts per million
    ValueDefinition
    -9999value assigned to samples for which analyses were not performed
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:430
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SE
    concentration of selenium in parts per million. Values of 0.5 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    0.5Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 1 ppm detection limit
    -9999.9value assigned to samples for which analysis was not performed
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.5
    Maximum:51.0
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    V
    concentration of vanadium oxide (V2O5) in parts per million
    ValueDefinition
    -9999value assigned to samples for which analyses were not performed
    Range of values
    Minimum:30
    Maximum:860
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ZN
    concentration of zinc in parts per million
    ValueDefinition
    -9999value assigned to samples for which analyses were not performed
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:540
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    nure_original.dbf
    Multi-element analyses of stream sediments collected and analyzed during the NURE program. Includes ID, lat/long, quadrangle name. Quantitative results for 28 elements.
    UNIQID
    unique identification number for sample
    Range of values
    Minimum:6002912
    Maximum:6017773
    QUAD_NAME
    name of NTMS quadrangle containing sample site
    ValueDefinition
    Ashland 
    Rice Lake 
    LAT
    latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:45.002
    Maximum:46.984
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.001
    LONG
    longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-91.995
    Maximum:-90.002
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.001
    AL
    concentration of aluminum in weight percent determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.74
    Maximum:7.96
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    AS
    concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.2
    Maximum:29.4
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    B
    concentration of boron in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy. Values of 5 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    -999value assigned to samples for which analysis was not performed
    5Value assigned to samples reporting less than the 10 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:62
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    BA
    concentration of barium in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:95
    Maximum:1237
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    BE
    concentration of beryllium in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy. Values of 0.5 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    0.5Value assigned to samples reporting less than the 1 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.5
    Maximum:9.0
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CA
    concentration of calcium in weight percent determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.11
    Maximum:3.36
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    CO
    concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy. Values of 2 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    2Value assigned to samples reporting less than the 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:53
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CR
    concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:9
    Maximum:167
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CU
    concentration of copper in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy. Value of 1 indicates below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Value assigned to samples reporting less than the 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:398
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    FE
    concentration of iron in weight percent determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.37
    Maximum:7.95
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    K
    concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.22
    Maximum:2.63
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    LI
    concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:33
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    MG
    concentration of magnesium in weight percent determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.069
    Maximum:2.479
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    MN
    concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:95
    Maximum:9600
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NA
    concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.159
    Maximum:1.669
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    NB
    concentration of lithium in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy. Values of 2 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    2Value assigned to samples reporting less the 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:36
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NI
    concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Value assigned to samples reporting less than the 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:46
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    P
    concentration of phosphorous in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:58
    Maximum:2376
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SC
    concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:27
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SE
    concentration of selenium in parts per million determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.2
    Maximum:10.1
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    SR
    concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    ValueDefinition
    -999value assigned to samples for which analysis was not performed
    Range of values
    Minimum:32
    Maximum:319
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TH
    concentration of thorium in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Value assigned to samples reporting less than 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:108
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TI
    concentration of titanium in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:825
    Maximum:20456
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    U
    concentration of uranium in parts per million determined by flourometry
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.43
    Maximum:119.60
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    V
    concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:14
    Maximum:222
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y
    concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:39
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ZN
    concentration of zinc in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate below detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than the 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:172
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Zr
    concentration of zirconium in parts per million determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:19
    Maximum:361
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    nure_rean.dbf
    Multi-element chemical analyses of stream sediments. Samples are a subset of the original NURE stream sediment samples reported in file NURE_original of this report, which were reanalyzed using USGS methods. Quantitative data for 30 elements. Analyses were also done for 10 additional elements which contained less than detection limits for 90-100% of samples. Those elements and their detection limits in parts per million are: Ag(2), Au(8), Be(1), Bi(50), Cd(2), Eu(2), Ho(4), Sn(50), Ta(40), U(100).
    LAB_NO
    unique identification numbers assigned by USGS to reanalyzed samples identifier without further scientific significance
    FIELD_NO_
    unique identification numbers assigned to samples by the original NURE program
    ValueDefinition
    -9999proxy value assigned where value is missing
    Range of values
    Minimum:600566
    Maximum:751056
    LONG
    longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-91.998
    Maximum:-90.013
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.001
    LAT
    latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:45.003
    Maximum:46.985
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.001
    AL
    concentration of aluminum in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.250
    Maximum:8.795
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    AS
    concentration of arsenic in parts per million determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.3
    Maximum:23.0
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    BA
    concentration of barium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:306
    Maximum:778
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CA
    concentration of calcium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.460
    Maximum:3.355
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    CE
    concentration of cerium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:23
    Maximum:104
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CO
    concentration of cobalt in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:49
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CR
    concentration of chromium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Proxy values assigned samples reporting less than the 2 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:138
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CU
    concentration of copper in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:65
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    FE
    concentration of iron in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.87
    Maximum:6.35
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    GA
    concentration of gallium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 2 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    2Proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than the 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:25
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    HG
    concentration of total mercury in parts per million determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Values of 0.01 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    0.01Proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than the 0.02 detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:0.28
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.01
    K
    concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.77
    Maximum:3.02
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    LA
    concentration of lanthanum in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:10
    Maximum:46
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    LI
    concentration of potassium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:4
    Maximum:28
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    MG
    concentration of magnesium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.221
    Maximum:2.065
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    MN
    concentration of manganese in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:199
    Maximum:9210
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NA
    concentration of sodium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.395
    Maximum:2.043
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    NB
    concentration of niobium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 2 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    2Proxy value assigned to samples reporting les than the 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:32
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ND
    concentration of neodymium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 5 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    5Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 9 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:45
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NI
    concentration of nickel in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:8
    Maximum:63
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    P
    concentration of phosphorous in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.005
    Maximum:9.000
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    PB
    concentration of lead in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 2 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    2Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 4 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:336
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SC
    concentration of scandium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:19
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SR
    concentration of strontium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:67
    Maximum:260
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TH
    concentration of thorium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 3 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    3Proxy values assigned to samples reporting less than the 6 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:22
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TI
    concentration of titanium in weight percent determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.192
    Maximum:1.446
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    V
    concentration of vanadium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:29
    Maximum:216
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y
    concentration of yttrium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:8
    Maximum:28
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    YB
    concentration of ytterbium in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Values of 1 indicate less than detection limit.
    ValueDefinition
    1Proxy value assigned to samples reporting less than the 1 ppm detection limit
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:4
    Units:part per million
    Resolution:1
    ZN
    concentration of zinc in parts per million determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy
    Range of values
    Minimum:17
    Maximum:228
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    nuress_adj.dbf
    Multi-element chemical composition for stream sediment samples. Data consists of original NURE values for some elements, and, where appropriate, of recalculated values based on consistent variations between original NURE data and data derived from USGS reanalysis of NURE samples.
    UNIQID
    unique sample identification number from original NURE program
    Range of values
    Minimum:6002912
    Maximum:6017773
    QUAD_NAME
    name of NTMS quadrangle containing sample site
    ValueDefinition
    Ashland 
    Rice Lake 
    LAT
    latitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:45.002
    Maximum:46.984
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.001
    LONG
    longitude of sample site
    Range of values
    Minimum:-91.995
    Maximum:-90.002
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.001
    AL_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of aluminum in weight percent
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.207
    Maximum:8.481
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    AS_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of arsenic in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:1.8
    Maximum:32.0
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    B_OR
    original NURE values for boron concentration in parts per million
    ValueDefinition
    -999missing values
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:62
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    BA_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of barium in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:207
    Maximum:749
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CA_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of calcium in weight percent
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.448
    Maximum:3.476
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    CO_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of cobalt in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:24
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CR_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of chromium in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:5
    Maximum:151
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    CU_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of copper in parts per million
    ValueDefinition
    -999missing value
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:347
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    FE_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of iron in weight percent
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.42
    Maximum:9.18
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    K_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of potassium in weight percent
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.41
    Maximum:2.97
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.01
    LI_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of lithium in parts per million
    ValueDefinition
    -999missing values
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:28
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    MG_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of magnesium in weight percent
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.211
    Maximum:1.955
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    MN_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of manganese in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:84
    Maximum:8811
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NA_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of sodium in weight percent
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.335
    Maximum:1.610
    Units:weight percent
    Resolution:0.001
    NB_OR
    original NURE values for concentration of niobium in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:36
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    NI_OR
    original NURE values for concentration of nickel in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:46
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    P_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of phosphorous in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:80
    Maximum:2756
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SC_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of scandium in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:21
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    SE_OR
    original NURE value for concentration of selenium in parts per million
    ValueDefinition
    -999missing values
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.2
    Maximum:10.1
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:0.1
    SR_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of strontium in parts per million
    ValueDefinition
    -999missing values
    Range of values
    Minimum:49
    Maximum:177
    Units:parts pre million
    Resolution:1
    TH_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of thorium in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:28
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    TI_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of titanium in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:1234
    Maximum:26305
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    U_OR
    original NURE value reported for concentration of uranium in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.429
    Maximum:119.599
    Units:pars per million
    Resolution:0.01
    V_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of vanadium in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:15
    Maximum:233
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    Y_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of yttrium in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:34
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ZR_OR
    original NURE value reported for concentration of zirconium in parts per million
    Range of values
    Minimum:19
    Maximum:380
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1
    ZN_ADJ
    recalculated concentration of zinc in parts per million
    ValueDefinition
    -999missing values
    Range of values
    Minimum:6
    Maximum:203
    Units:parts per million
    Resolution:1

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • William F. Cannon
    • Laurel G. Woodruff
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    U.S. Geological Survey
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    William Cannon
    Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 954
    Reston, Virginia
    USA

    703-648-6345 (voice)
    wcannon@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This study was conducted to provide information on the geochemical background and baseline values of a suite of elements in a part of northern Wisconsin including the Chequamegon National Forest. The resulting chemical analyses are useful both for documenting the natural variability of elements, but also provide a base of data to conduct research on geochemical and physical processes that control and modify the chemical composition of surficial geologic materials and to develop optimal sampling and analytical strategies for other studies in similar terranes.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Arendt and others (1979) (source 1 of 5)
    Arendt, J.W., and others, 1979, Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance procedures of the Uranium Resource Evaluation project: Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, Tenn., K/UR-100: GJBX GJBX-32(80), U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, Colorado.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Butz and others (1979) (source 2 of 5)
    Butz, T.R., and others, 1979, Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Ashland NTMS quadrangle, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota: GJBX GJBX-61, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Nichols and others (1978) (source 3 of 5)
    Nichols, C.E., and others, 1978, Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Rice Lake NTMS quadrangle, Wisconsin: GJBX GJBX-95(78), U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Routledge and others (1981) (source 4 of 5)
    Routledge, R.E., and others, 1981, National Uranium Resource Evaluation, Rice Lake Quadrangle, Wisconsin: GJQ GJQ-006(81), U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, Colorado.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Routledge (1982) (source 5 of 5)
    Routledge, R.E., 1982, National Uranium Resource Evaluation, Ashland Quadrangle, Wisconsin: FGJ FGJ/F-084(82), U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, Colorado.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    (process 1 of 6)
    Sample collection:
    Samples reported in the files of this data set were acquired at several diferrent times using different sampling methods. These are:
    1) Soil samples collected by USGS reported in files A_soil, B_soil, C_soil, E_soil. Samples were collected from shallow pits dug by hand to approximately 0.7 m depth and extended to a final depth of about one meter, where possible, using a bucket auger. Samples were placed into cloth sample bags or sealed plastic bags and air dried in the laboratory before submitting for analyses.
    2) Soil samples collected by USDA Forest Service reported in files A_soil, B_soil, C_soil, E_soil. Samples were collected from hand-dug pits, and in some cases from larger pits dug with a mechanical backhoe. Samples from multiple depths were archived in trays. For the analyses reported here the original samples were divided into representative splits, one of which was submitted for analyses.
    3) NURE stream sediment samples reported in file NURE_original. Techniques of sampling and sample preparation are included in NURE documents (Arendt and others, 1979).
    4) NURE reanalyzed stream sediments reported in file NURE_rean. Original NURE stream sediment samples are archived by the USGS in Lakewood, Colorado. The samples have been stored in glass jars. For reanalysis, the original samples were split into representative portions, one of which was submitted for analyses.
    5) NURE lake sediments reported in file NURE_ls. Lake bottom sediments were collected using a Hornebrook sampler and air dried prior to submission for analyses.
    6) USGS lake sediments reported in file USGS_ls. Lake bottom sediments were collected using a gravity corer in which the sample is recovered in a polyethelene tube. The sample, representing approximately the upper 10 cm of sediment, was recovered by pouring off overlying water and water-sediment slurry, and extruding the remaining sample into a cloth sample bag. Samples were allowed to drip dry in the field and were later air-dried in the laboratory prior to submission for analyses.
    (process 2 of 6)
    Sample preparation:
    Soil samples--The dry soil sample is disaggregated, if necessary, in the mechanical, ceramic mortar and pestle (soil grinder). The sample is sieved to the required grain size of 100 percent minus 80-mesh (<180 mm) and at least 80 percent minus 100-mesh (<150 mm) using sieves with stainless-steel screens. The sieved fraction is pulverized if further reduction in grain size is required by the subsequent chemical analysis.
    USGS_stream sediments--The dry stream-sediment samples are disaggregated by hand, as necessary, and as much organic material as possible is removed. The samples are sieved to pass an 80-mesh screen (<180 mm) or the particle size specified on the RFA. The sieved fraction is generally ground in a mechanical pulverizer, placed in a 3-oz container and mixed to ensure homogeneity.
    NURE analyses--Procedures are described by Arendt and others (1979). Data sources used in this process:
    • Arendt and others (1979)
    (process 3 of 6)
    Chemical analysis:
    SAMPLES ANALYZED BY USGS Forty major, minor, and trace elements are determined in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The sample is decomposed using a mixture of hydrochloric, nitric, perchloric, and hydrofluoric acids at low temperature. The digested sample is aspirated into the ICP-AES discharge where the elemental emission signal is measured simultaneously for the forty elements. Calibration is performed by standardizing with digested rock reference materials and a series of multi-element solution standards.
    The 40 elements analyzed are listed below with their reporting ranges. For samples containing less than the lower limit of detection, the value reported in the data tables is 0.7 of the reporting limit rounded to the nearest reporting unit.
    Element          Concentration Range
    Aluminum,    Al    0.005 - 50%
    Calcium,     Ca    0.005 - 50%
    Iron,        Fe    0.02  - 25%
    Potassium,   K     0.01  - 50%
    Magnesium,   Mg    0.005 -  5%
    Sodium,      Na    0.005 - 50%
    Phosphorous, P     0.005 - 50%
    Titanium,    Ti    0.005 - 25%
    Silver,      Ag    2 -  10,000 ppm
    Arsenic,     As   10 -  50,000 ppm
    Gold,        Au    8 -  50,000 ppm
    Barium,      Ba    1 -  35,000 ppm
    Beryllium,   Be    1 -   5,000 ppm
    Bismuth,     Bi   50 -  50,000 ppm
    Cadmium,     Cd    2 -  25,000 ppm
    Cerium,      Ce    5 -  50,000 ppm
    Cobalt,      Co    2 -  25,000 ppm
    Chromium,    Cr    2 -  25,000 ppm
    Copper,      Cu    2 -  15,000 ppm
    Europium,    Eu    2 -   5,000 ppm
    Gallium,     Ga    4 -  50,000 ppm
    Holmium,     Ho    4 -   5,000 ppm
    Lanthanum,   La    2 -  50,000 ppm
    Lithium,     Li    2 -  50,000 ppm
    Manganese,   Mn    4 -  50,000 ppm
    Molybdenum,  Mo    2 -  50,000 ppm
    Niobium,     Nb    4 -  50,000 ppm
    Neodymium,   Nd    9 -  50,000 ppm
    Nickel,      Ni    3 -  50,000 ppm
    Lead,        Pb    4 -  50,000 ppm
    Scandium,    Sc    2 -  50,000 ppm
    Tin,         Sn   50 -  50,000 ppm
    Strontium,   Sr    2 -  15,000 ppm
    Tantalum,    Ta   40 -  50,000 ppm
    Thorium,     Th    6 -  50,000 ppm
    Uranium,     U   100 - 100,000 ppm
    Vanadium,    V     2 -  30,000 ppm
    Yttrium,     Y     2 -  25,000 ppm
    Ytterbium,   Yb    1 -   5,000 ppm
    Zinc,        Zn    2 -  15,000 ppm
    
    For determination of mercury a 0.1g of sample is digested using a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids. Potassium permanganate, sulphuric acid and potassium persulphate are added to the solution, followed by a NaCl-hydroxylamine solution and then the solution is diluted to 25mL. It is mixed thoroughly, allowed to settle and then transferred to the auto sampler rack of the Perkin-Elmer Flow Injection Mercury System, FIMS-100.
    The FIMS-100 is a cold-vapor atomic absorption mercury analyzer, which determines the mercury concentration in a solution after it has been liberated as vapor using stannous chloride reducing agent. The absorption of the sample is measured using a mercury lamp at 253.7nm. The lower reporting limit of 0.02 ppm mercury. Samples containing less than 0.02 ppm are assigned a value of 0.01 in the data tables.
    Arsenic was determined by weighing 0.1 g of sample into a zirconium crucible. Approximately 0.75 g of sodium peroxide is added and mixed. The mixture is heated in a muffle furnace set at 750°C for four minutes. The sample is cooled then 15 ml of water and 5 ml of concentrated HCl is added. The mixture is shaken and 0.25 ml of an ascorbic acid KI solution is added then diluted with 20% HCl and let to stand overnight. Arsenic is then measure using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimum concentration range without sample dilution is 0.6 ppm to 20 ppm.
    Selenium is determined by weighing .25 g of sample into a test tube, adding a mixture of nitric, hydrofluoric and perchloric acids and heating. After the solution is cooled hydrochloric and nitric are added, heated again and cooled. The samples are diluted and analyzed using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The expected analytical range for selenium is 0.2 to 4 ppm.
    Total carbon is determined by the use of an automated carbon analyzer. A weighed sample is combusted in an oxygen atmosphere at 1370°C to oxidize carbon to carbon dioxide. Moisture and dust are removed and the carbon dioxide gas is measured by a solid state infrared detector.
    Carbonate carbon is determined as carbon dioxide by coulometric titration. The sample is treated with hot 2N perchloric acid and the evolved carbon dioxide is passed into a cell containing a solution of monoethanolamine. The carbon dioxide, quantitatively absorbed by the monoethanolamine, is coulometrically titrated using platinum and silver/potassium-iodide electrodes. The lower reporting limit is 0.01% carbon dioxide and samples containing up to 50% carbon dioxide may be analyzed. Sample size is adjusted from 0.5 g for the range 0.01 to 5% carbon dioxide, 0.1 g for the range 5 to 10% carbon dioxide, and 0.02 g for greater than 10% carbon dioxide
    Organic carbon is calculated as the difference between total carbon and carbonate carbon,
    Total sulfur is determined by using an automated sulfur analyzer. Approximately 0.25 g of sample is mixed with iron chips and LECOCEL and is heated in a combustion tube in a stream of oxygen at high temperature. Sulfur is oxidized to sulfur dioxide. Moisture and dust are removed and the sulfur dioxide gas is then measured by a CS-244 infrared detector.
    SAMPLES ANALYZED BY THE NURE PROGRAM Stream sediments-most elements reported were determined by plasma source emission spectroscopy. As and Se were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, and U by flourometry. All analyses were done at the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project Laboratory at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Details of techniques are given in Arendt and others (1790).
    The elements analyzed and their lower limits of detection in parts per million are:
    U   0.25
    As  0.1
    Se  0.1
    Ag  2
    Al  0.05%
    B  10
    Ba  2
    Be  1
    Ca  0.05%
    Co  4
    Cr  1
    Cu  2
    Fe  0.05%
    Li  1
    Mg  0.05%
    Mn  4
    Mo  4
    Na  0.05%
    Nb  4
    Ni  2
    P   5
    Sc  1
    Th  2
    Ti 10
    V   2
    Y   1
    Zn  2
    Zr  2
    
    (process 4 of 6)
    Recalculation of NURE stream sediment analyses (file NURE_adj)--Comparison of 400 sets of original NURE stream sediment analyses, performed in 1978-79, and USGS reanalysis of the same samples, performed in 1998-1999, shows significant and consistent variations for most elements between the two data sets. Using those consistent variations we have derived formulas to recalculate the original NURE data to be consistent with the USGS analyses. Plotting NURE values vs. USGS values produces regression lines whose slope generally varies significantly from 1 for most elements. A correction factor, which changes to slope to 1, was determined and then applied to all 913 NURE analyses. The resulting adjusted values are believed to be more accurate than the original NURE data and remove an apparent quadrangle bias that exists for some elements in the original data. Visual inspection of spatial patterns of the original NURE data show an apparent discontinuity of concentrations along the boundary between the Rice Lake and Ashland Quadrangles which is not present in the recalculated values.
    (process 5 of 6)
    Compile dbf of sample locations and chemical analysis results
    Date: 15-Jan-2003 (process 6 of 6)
    Creation of original metadata record Person who carried out this activity:
    William F Cannon
    U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 954
    12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
    Reston, VA
    USA

    703-648-6345 (voice)
    703-648-6383 (FAX)
    wcannon@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    USGS ANALYSES-- This report pertains to samples analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey and includes all analyses contained in the data files A_soil, B_soil, C_soil, E_soil, USGS_ls, and NURE_rean. Analytical results were compared to results for standard reference materials. Data quality checks were performed both at an analytical laboratory (XRAL) and by the USGS. The first level of quality control checks occurred at XRAL. XRAL Laboratories is accredited to the ISO 9002, 1994 standard (ANSI-RAB 01298 and NACB 9555). The laboratory's quality control protocol is to insert a reagent blank and a reference sample material with every batch of 20 samples to measure the analytical accuracy. Duplicate samples are analyzed at the end of the sample set to measure analytical variance as well as sample variance. Data passing the quality control criteria was sent to the USGS and imported into the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS).
    The second level of data validation was performed at the USGS. All samples submitted to XRAL are accompanied with a set of USGS in-house reference samples submitted at the rate of 10%. Using a program within the LIMS, the data for the reference samples was evaluated by comparing the "obtained" analytical value to the "expected" value for each element. The values must fall within the range of acceptance, which varies between +/- 5% to +/-20% depending on the analytical method.
    NURE ANALYSES-- This report pertains to samples collected and analyzed by the NURE Program and includes all analyses contained in the files NURE_original and NURE_ls. All analyses of stream sediments were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, mostly by Plasma Source Emission Spectroscopy. Control samples consisting of two batches of samples were submitted daily along with field samples. A statistical summary of quality control results and analytical procedures and accuracy is given in the NURE reports for the Ashland Quadrangle (GJBX-61) and the Rice Lake Quadrangle (GJBX-95).
    Analyses of NURE lake sediment samples were performed at Rocky Mountain Geochemical Corporation in Sparks, Nevada, but information on analytical and quality control procedures was not specified in the original reports.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    USGS sample sites were located using a GPS instrument. Maximum observed variation in repeated GPS readings taken at the same site is in the fourth decimal place (0.000x degree) and estimated positional accuracy is approximately +/- 50 meters.
    For samples collected by the NURE Program latitude-longitude coordinates were reported in the original data files, as decimal degrees, to only 3 decimal places. Therefore, the precision of these coordinates is limited to +/- 0.001 degrees or +/- 3.6 seconds. This translates to a minimum precision of +/- 365 feet (111 m) for latitude values and between +/- 259 feet (79 m) to +/- 235 feet (72 m) for longitude values (calculated at latitudes of 45° and 50°N, respectively.)
    The technique for locating NURE lake sediment sample sites is not specified in the original NURE reports. We infer it to have been an approximation of the location based on visual examination of topography as indicated on topographic maps or aerial photographs and likely to be accurate to within roughly 100-200 meters. Locations were provided only as large-scale maps showing sample sites. We have derived the locations in the present report by digitizing locations from those maps.
    Soil sample sites collected by USDA Forest Service were initially recorded on aerial photographs and then transferred to 1:24,000 topographic maps by visually comparing features identifiable on both. Latitude and Longitude coordinates were read from the maps by hand using appropriate graticules. Estimated accuracy is +/- 100m.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Analytical results are presented for nearly all elements in the samples. Where an analysis was not performed, large negative values such as -999 or -9999 (for integer fields) or -9999.9 (for real number fields) is given in the data set, and that these comprise a small proportion (less than 5% of samples overall) of available data.
    The only analysis which has significant missing data is Vanadium oxide from the NURE lake-bottom sediments, which has 204 missing of 361 analyses.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    The data reported here come from two different sampling programs. Reconciling inconsistencies in the analytical results was part of the study process, and some of the original NURE stream sediment samples were reanalyzed in order to determine if a correction would be needed to make fair comparisons between the original analyses and USGS studies. Such adjustments were made to the data reported here.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Any hardcopies utilizing these data sets shall clearly indicate their source. If the user has modified the data in any way they are obligated to describe the type of modification they have performed. User specifically agrees not to misrepresent these data sets, nor to imply that changes they have made were approved by the U.S Geological Survey.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 23-Feb-2015
Metadata author:
Peter N Schweitzer
USGS Midwest Area
Collection manager, USGS Geoscience Data Clearinghouse, http://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/
Mail Stop 954
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
Reston, VA
USA

703-648-6533 (voice)
703-648-6252 (FAX)
pschweitzer@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/metadata/open-file/03-259/metadata.faq.html>
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