Generalized lithology and lithogeochemical character of near-surface bedrock in the New England region

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Metadata:

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: G. R. Robinson, Jr.
Originator: K. E. Kapo
Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
Generalized lithology and lithogeochemical character of near-surface bedrock in the New England region
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Map
Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 03-225
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-225/
Description:
Abstract:
This geographic information system (GIS) data layer shows the dominant lithology and geochemical, termed lithogeochemical, character of near-surface bedrock in the New England region covering the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. The bedrock units in the map are generalized into groups based on their lithological composition and, for granites, geochemistry. Geologic provinces are defined as time-stratigraphic groups that share common features of age of formation, geologic setting, tectonic history, and lithology.
This data set incorporates data from digital maps of two NAWQA study areas, the New England Coastal Basin (NECB) and the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins (CONN) areas and extends data to cover the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. The result is a regional dataset for the lithogeochemical characterization of New England (the layer named NE_LITH). Polygons in the final coverage are attributed according to state, drainage area, geologic province, general rock type, lithogeochemical characteristics, and specific bedrock map unit.
Purpose:
This geologic characterization provides a framework to interpret regional geochemistry and habitat characteristics in relation to bedrock lithology and geologic provinces that share common features. The lithogeochemical data layer combines and extends data previously compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) study areas of the New England Coastal Basin (NECB), and the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins (CONN). The coverage provides digital geologic information that may be applied to the analysis of water-quality characteristics of surface water and shallow ground water, and soil and stream sediment characteristics based on bedrock lithogeochemistry.
The geologic characterization provided in this classification is intended to portray significant bedrock geologic features that influence stream sediment and soil chemistry and water quality.
"Near-surface bedrock" in this report refers to lithified materials covered by no more than about 60 feet of overlying unconsolidated surficial materials. The thickness of Quaternary sediments overlying bedrock is generally less than 60 feet in the New England states (Soller, 1993).
The bedrock units shown on the source maps were grouped and generalized for this compilation. Consequently this map will show fewer geologic units and less detail than the state geologic maps from which the information was drawn.
A few areas have been modified from those shown on the state maps, for example, additional units portrayed by Smoot (1991) are shown in the Hartford Basin area of Connecticut and Massachusetts and mismatched contacts have been adjusted along state borders.
Based on the geologic map compilation scales, mismatches of some unit contacts across state boundaries, and the positioneal uncertainty of the source digital files relative to the published geologic maps, the spatial accuracy of this compilation is estimated as 1.5 km.
To the degree that surficial materials are related to their proximal bedrock source, the variations in bedrock geology also provide guidelines to the expected variation in the properties and chemistry of surficial materials and surface waters. In glaciated areas, such as New England, the mineralogy of tills and some stratified drift is related to adjacent bedrock units, and bedrock geology has been used to help define their chemical character (Bailey and Hornbeck, 1992). A lithogeochemical framework similar to that provided in this report has been used to define correlations between groundwater chemistry and bedrock geology (Grady and Mullaney, 1988; Ayotte and others, 1999). Groundwater chemistry for alkalinity, pH, Ca, Mg, Na, silica, and radon in surficial aquifers sampled from wells up to 60 feet in depth in surficial aquifers have been shown to correlate with groups of lithology of the underlying bedrock (Grady and Mullaney, 1988). Groundwater chemistry for pH, iron, manganese, and arsenic in fractured crystalline bedrock aquifers sampled from wells up to 500 feet in depth differ by bedrock lithology groups (Ayotte and others, 1999; Ayotte and others, 2003).
The lithogeochemical characterization in these data have been put to use analyzing water-quality characteristics in studies by Grady and Mullaney (1998) and Ayotte and others (2003).
Supplemental_Information:
The lithogeochemical classification scheme for the New England Lithology data set was first developed as part of the USGS's study of the CONN area (Robinson and others, 1999). The classification scheme is based on geochemical principles, previous studies of the relations among water-quality and ecosystem characteristics and rock type, and regional geology (Robinson, 1997 and references cited within). The classification scheme and data set are intended to provide a general, flexible framework to portray the lithologic character of mapped bedrock units in New England in relation to regional geochemical and water-quality data.
The data set is a lithologic map that has been coded to reflect the potential influence of bedrock geology on water quality and sediment chemistry. Information on the map unit identities portrayed on the source bedrock geologic maps for each state are retained in this digital dataset.
The bedrock units in New England have been mapped by time- stratigraphic and other geologic criteria that may not be directly relevant to variation in regional geochemistry and water quality. Bedrock units depicted on the state geologic maps are inconsistent across state boundaries in some areas. Thus, a regional coding scheme was developed to reclassify the geologic map units according to mineralogical and chemical characteristics that are relevant for analysis of regional variation in geochemistry and water-quality.
To provide a framework for geochemical investigations, the bedrock units were classified according to the chemical composition (based upon the geologic maps used in the creation of this data set) and the relative susceptibility to weathering of their constituent minerals. Although weathering rates may vary, the relative stability of different minerals during weathering in moist climates is generally consistent (Robinson, 1997). However, the degree to which a rock weathers reflects the proportions of its constituent mineral as well as many other factors such as degree of induration and relative amount of mineral surfaces exposed to water through primary and secondary porosity (Robinson, 1997 and references cited within). Thus, although largely based on the relative stability of rock constituent minerals, the classification scheme to group bedrock units according to effects on soil and sediment chemistry and water quality is more complex than mineral-stability sequences. Most common rock-forming minerals are only sparingly soluble, so small amounts of highly reactive minerals can have large effects on water quality (Robinson, 1997; Grady and Mullaney, 1998). For example, rocks containing significant amounts of carbonate minerals are more rapidly weathered and tend to produce higher solute concentrations in natural waters than many other rock types. In contrast, rock types such as granite, schist and quartzite are rich in quartz, muscovite, and alkali-feldspars; these minerals tend to produce low solute concentrations because they react to a lesser degree and at slower rates than other mineral types in humid temperate climates (Robinson, 1997). Further description of the lithogeochemical classification scheme and the expected water-quality and ecosystem characteristics associated with each lithogeochemical unit is explained in Robinson (1997).
The lithogeochemical classification scheme used in this data set incorporates mineralogical information derived from published descriptions of the bedrock geology map units with other information on geologic features, such as metamorphic grade and geologic setting. The attributes of lithology code ("Litho_code") and modifier code ("Lith_mod") are used to express this lithogeochemical coding of bedrock units. Thirty-seven lithogeochemical units (combinations of lithology and modifier codes) are defined for the New England study region based on the mineral and textural properties of the bedrock unit's constituent minerals, presence of carbonate and sulfide minerals, depositional setting (such as restricted deposition within fault bounded sedimentary basins of Mississipian or younger age), and for some of the granitic units, mineralogy and magma chemistry. The classification scheme used descriptions from state and regional geologic maps (Doll and others, 1961; Osberg and others, 1985; Lyons and others, 1997; Zen and others, 1983; Hermes and others, 1994; and Rogers, 1985; Smoot, 1991). For Rhode Island and Maine, source materials of the state geologic maps were available as digital data layers (Osberg and others, 1985, Maine; Hermes and others, 1994, 1:100,000 scale, Rhode Island).
Information from these sources included descriptions of the lithology, mineralogy, and weathering characteristics of the bedrock units. For example, "rusty-weathering" serves as an indicator of sulfidic-bearing bedrock units (Robinson, 1997). Carbonate and sulfide minerals predominate in the classification scheme because these highly reactive minerals have a disproportionately large effect on water chemistry compared to other minerals commonly found in the rocks of this region (Robinson, 1997). In the Maine data set, information about metamorphic grade was also used to classify bedrock units. A digital data layer of generalized regional metamorphic zones (Guidotti, 1985, shown in Osberg and others, 1985, was obtained from the Maine Geological Survey. This layer was intersected with the digital bedrock geology to determine the regional metamorphic grade of each polygon in the bedrock geology data layer. Polygons lying within two metamorphic zones were split at the metamorphic-zone boundary. Metamorphic grade and geochemical composition of the protolith (pre-metamorphism source rock) were used to classify polygons into lithogeochemical units. For example, bedrock units with protoliths of "limestone and (or) dolostone" were classified as "limestone, dolomite, and carbonate-rich clastic sediments" (lithogeochemical unit "11u") in areas of little or no regional metamorphism and as "marble, may include some calc-silicate rock" (lithogeochemical unit "12u") in areas of greenschist facies or high-grade metamorphism.
Bibliographic References:
Ayotte, J.P., Nielsen, M.G., Robinson, G.R., Jr., Moore, R,B., 1999, Relation of arsenic, iron, and manganese in ground water to aquifer type, bedrock lithogeochemistry, and land use in the New England Coastal Basins, U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigative Report 99-4162, 61 p.
Ayotte, J.D., Montgomery, D.L., Flanagan, S.M., and Robinson, K.W., 2003, Arsenic in ground water in eastern New England: Occurrence, controls, and human health implications: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 37, no.10, p.2075-2083.
Bailey, S.W. and Hornbeck, J.W., 1992, Lithologic composition and rock weathering potential of forested, glacial-till soils, Research paper NE-662, Radnor PA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experimental Station, 7 p.
Doll, C.G., Cady, W.M., and Thompson, J.B., Jr., and Billings, M.P., eds. and compilers, 1961, Centennial Geology Map of Vermont: Montpelier, VT, U.S. Geological Survey, 1:250,000, 1 sheet. (transverse mercator projection, based on best available information).
Grady, S.J. and Mullaney, J.R., 1998, Natural and human factors affecting shallow water quality in surficial aquifers in the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4042, 81 p.
Guidotti, C.V., 1985, Generalized map of regional metamorphic zones:in Osberg, P.H., and others: Augusta, Maine, Maine Geological Survey, 1 map sheet, 1:1,600,000.
Hermes, O.D., Gromet, L.P., Murray, D.P., 1994, Bedrock geologic map of Rhode Island: Kingston, R.I., Office of the Rhode Island State Geologist, Rhode Island Map Series No 1, 1 map sheet, 1:100,000.
Lyons, J.B., Bothner, W.A., Moench, R.H., and Thompson, J.B., Jr., 1997, Bedrock geologic map of New Hampshire: Reston, Va., U.S. Geological Survey Special Map, 2 map sheets, 1:250,000.
McHone, J.G., and Butler, J.R. 1984. Mesozoic igneous provinces of New England and the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean: Geological Society of America Bulletin v.95, p. 757-765.
Osberg, P.H., Hussey, A.M. II, and Boone, G.M., 1985, Bedrock geologic map of Maine: Augusta, Maine, Maine Geological Survey, 1 map sheet, 1:500,000.
Robinson, G.R., Jr., 1997, Portraying chemical properties of bedrock for water quality and ecosystem analysis: an approach for the New England Region: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-154, 17 p.
Robinson, G.R., Jr., Peper, J.D., Steeves, P.A., and DeSimone, L.A., 1999, Lithogeochemical character of near-surface bedrock in the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins: U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4000 digital.
Robinson, G.R., Jr., Ayotte, J.P., Montgomery, D.C., and DeSimone, L.A. 2002, Lithogeochemical Character of Near-Surface Bedrock in the New England Coastal Basins: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 02-00 digital.
Rogers, John (compiler), 1985, Bedrock geological map of Connecticut: Connecticut Geologic and Natural History Survey, Natural Resource Atlas Map Series, 2 map sheets, 1:125,000.
Soller, D.R., 1993, Map showing the thickness and character of Quaternary sediments in the glaciated United States east of the Rocky Mountains - Northeastern states, the Great Lakes, and parts of southern Ontario and the Atlantic offshore area (east of 80o 31' west longitude): U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Invistigations Series Map I-1970-A.
Smoot, J.P., 1991, Sedimentary facies and depositional environments of early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup basins, eastern North America: Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, v. 84, p. 369-423.
Zen, E-an, Goldsmith, G.R., Ratcliffe, N.L., Robinson, P., and Stanley, R.S., 1983, Bedrock geologic map of Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey, Monograph Series, 3 map sheets, 1:250,000.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2003
Currentness_Reference: publication date
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None Planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -73.73
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -66.93
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 47.42
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.90
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: geology
Theme_Keyword: geochemistry
Theme_Keyword: unconsolidated deposits
Theme_Keyword: bedrock geologic units
Theme_Keyword: water chemistry
Theme_Keyword: geospatial datasets
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: Lithogeochemical
Theme_Keyword: Bedrock
Theme_Keyword: Stream sediment chemistry
Theme_Keyword: Lithology
Theme_Keyword: Mineral
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Categories
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: NECB NAWQA study unit
Place_Keyword: CONN NAWQA study unit
Place_Keyword: New England
Place_Keyword: Maine
Place_Keyword: Rhode Island
Place_Keyword: Connecticut
Place_Keyword: Massachusetts
Place_Keyword: New Hampshire
Place_Keyword: Vermont
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: Augmented FIPS 10-4 and FIPS 6-4
Place_Keyword: US09 = Connecticut
Place_Keyword: US44 = Rhode Island
Place_Keyword: US25 = Massachusetts
Place_Keyword: US50 = Vermont
Place_Keyword: US33 = New Hampshire
Place_Keyword: US23 = Maine
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Gilpin R Robinson
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey, ER
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
Mail Stop 954
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-6113
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703-648-6383
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: grobinso@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-225/Fig_1.jpg
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
The drainage basins covered by this dataset, 745x548 pixels, 34k bytes.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-225/Fig_2.jpg
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
The geologic provinces of New England, 745x567 pixels, 47k bytes.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-225/Fig_3.jpg
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
General lithology distribution in New England (symbolized with attribute Rock_GpA), 745x551 pixels, 66k bytes.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit:
Individuals involved in the creation of the final New England Lithology (NE_LITH), CONN, and NECB coverages are listed as follows:
New England Lithology (final Coverage NE_LITH):
Gilpin R. Robinson, Jr.: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va. Primary developer of the classification scheme. Preparation of source materials and information for combining the coverages into a general representation of New England Lithology.
Katherine E. Kapo: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia. Assisted in editing the coverage linework and attributes, creation of the final "New England Lithology" version, and compilation of the final metadata.
Joseph D. Ayotte: U.S. Geological Survey, Pembroke, New Hampshire. New England Coastal Basin NAWQA ground-water specialist; reviewed the construction of the combined coverage.
Laura Hayes: U.S. Geological Survey, Pembroke, New Hampshire. Reviewed the finalized coverage and metadata and provided corrections for the metadata and attribute table.
CONN Coverage:
Gilpin R. Robinson, Jr: Preparation of source materials and compilation of lithogeochemical units for Connecticut and Massachusetts regions; primary development of lithogeochemical classification scheme.
John D. Peper: Preparation of source materials and compilation of lithogeochemical units for Vermont and New Hampshire regions; additional development of lithogeochemical classification scheme.
Peter A. Steeves: Construction, revision, quality-assurance, and documentation of the digital data layer and publication of the data layer as a digital map product.
Leslie A. DeSimone: Quality assurance, revision, and documentation of the data layer and publication of the data layer as a digital map product.
Stephen P. Garabedian: Connecticut River NAWQA chief; coordinating personnel and funding, planning, oversight, and review of the data layer
Stephen J. Grady: Connecticut River NAWQA ground-water specialist; primary user of the resulting data; planning and definition of water quality issues of the NAWQA study unit for use in development of the data layer and oversight of the initial data-layer construction phases.
Robert Sava, Jr: Digitizing and coding contributions in NH, MA, and VT
Shanon Wappel: Digitizing and coding contributions in CT
NECB Coverage:
Gilpin R. Robinson, Jr.: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA. Primary developer of the classification scheme. Preparation of source materials and compilation of lithogeochemical units for Maine, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island.
John D. Peper: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA. Preparation of source materials and compilation of lithogeochemical units for New Hampshire; secondary developer of the lithogeochemical classification scheme.
John C. Rader: U.S. Geological Survey, Marlboro, Massachusetts. Construction, revision, quality-assurance, and documentation of the original digital data layer.
Keith W. Robinson: U.S. Geological Survey, Pembroke, New Hampshire. New England Coastal Basin NAWQA Chief; Coordination of personnel and funding, planning, oversight, and review of the data layer.
Joseph D. Ayotte: U.S. Geological Survey, Pembroke, New Hampshire. New England Coastal Basin NAWQA ground-water specialist; primary user of the resulting data; planning and definition of the water-quality issues of the NAWQA study unit for use in development of the data layer and oversight of the data layer construction phases.
Leslie A. DeSimone: U.S. Geological Survey, Marlboro, Massachusetts. Technical reviewer of original digital data layer.
Walt Bawiec: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia. Colleague reviewer who performed technical reviews of the completed digital data set and metadata document.
Curtis Price: U.S. Geological Survey, Rapid City, South Dakota. Colleague reviewer who performed technical reviews of the completed digital data set and metadata document.
Sarah M. Flanagan: U.S. Geological Survey, Pembroke, New Hampshire. Edited the coverage and assisted in compilation and editing the metadata.
Laura Hayes: U.S. Geological Survey, Pembroke, New Hampshire. Created plots of the CONN lithogeochemical coverage and the NECB lithogeochemical coverage so that consistency along the study-unit border could be checked. Corrected the shift in the Massachusetts portion of the coverage. Assisted in compilation and editing of the NECB metadata.
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Windows_NT, 4.0, Intel ArcInfo version 8.0.2
Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Potential errors associated with the polygon labels and line junctions were checked using the LABELERRORS and NODEERRORS command in ARC/INFO. The ARC/INFO FREQUENCY command was used to compare the assignments of the lithology code and modifier code attributes to the state bedrock codes. After the CONN and NECB data sets were combined, the lithological patterns and bedrock designations were checked using reference state geologic maps mentioned in the reference section, and corrections were made as needed to the digital data sets for the final combined data set.
The scientific content of this digital data set underwent technical review by two USGS scientists who have knowledge of the regional geology, and GIS and spatial-data production. The data set was evaluated on positional accuracy, contextual accuracy, attribute accuracy, and topological consistency.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Every polygon has a single label point and all polygons are closed. The same lithologic unit may extend across a state line but have different formation names in different states.
Discrepancies at state borders. Compilation of the lithogeochemical data layer using state geologic maps also resulted in some discontinuities at state borders. The lithogeochemical unit assigned to a bedrock unit was based primarily on its description on the appropriate state geologic map. Because the information contained on the individual state maps was interpreted and assembled by different groups of geologists, the compiled data set is not always internally consistent. In addition, the state map descriptions have generalized the chemical and mineral-assemblage characteristics of the bedrock units and formations across the different states; thus, regional trends in lithology or metamorphic grade may have resulted in different generalized descriptions of the same geologic unit in adjacent states. Discrepancies across state borders in the lithogeochemical data layer reflect these and other inconsistencies among the state geologic maps that could not be resolved with the existing information. However, the lithogeochemical coding of geologic units is consistent in each state.
Discrepancies at the Study Unit boundary: The classification scheme was first developed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's NAWQA study of the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins (Robinson and others, 1999). When the CONN and NECB lithogeochemical data sets are plotted together, there are discrepancies along the study unit boundaries between bedrock lines, lithogeochemical units and major groups. These discrepancies are attributed to modifications in the lithogeochemical classfication scheme since the publication of Robinson and others (1999), specifically the granitic bedrock units, which were subdivided into additional lithogeochemical units with modifying attributes to indicate relative age. In addition, there are differences in digital source materials for the bedrock data layers in New Hampshire and Massachusetts and difference in the presence/occurrence of bedrock units between the different study areas. These discrepancies are more frequent when the data set is viewed with the lithogeochemical units showing, and less frequent when the data set is viewed with the major groups showing. Overall, the bedrock units within the two study units were classified in a consistent manner to create a regional product that can be used to evaluate bedrock geology affect on water-quality characteristics.
Where surficial deposits are derived from the local bedrock, the data layer might also be used to describe the lithogeochemical character of these materials. However, chemical characteristics of natural waters associated with surficial deposits may differ from that suggested by the lithogeochemical character of the bedrock units to the extent that the surficial deposits consist of, or are mixed with, materials transported from source areas with differing lithogeochemical characteristics.
Completeness_Report:
This data set contains bedrock unit boundaries, lithogeochemical boundaries, and rock group boundaries for the New England study area, which combines the CONN and NECB study units. The CONN NAWQA study unit includes most of Connecticut, western Massachusetts, eastern Vermont, western New Hampshire and small parts of Rhode Island, New York, and Quebec, Canada. The NECB NAWQA study area encompasses 23,000 square miles in western and central Maine, eastern Massachusetts, most of Rhode Island, and a small part of eastern Connecticut. Included in the NECB study area are the Kennebec, Androscogginn, Saco, Merrimack, Charles, and Blackstone River Basins as well as all of Cape Cod.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The spatial accuracy of the geologic source information varies. The source geologic map scales range from 1:100,000 to 1:500,000. In addition, analysis near state boundaries may be limited by the geologic map interpretation differences across state boundaries. This New England Lithology coverage is limited by variances related to these differences in source materials used and interpretation of geologic information between the CONN and NECB lithochemical mapping.
The spatial component of this data layer was compiled from five different digital sources and, therefore, incorporates any limitations associated with those individual state geologic data layers as well as their source paper maps. The digital sources were provided with minimal documentation, so it is unknown how or with what accuracy they were digitized. The scales of the original state bedrock maps range from 1:100,000 to 1:500,000. Based on the geologic map compilation scales, mismatches of some unit contacts across state boundaries, and the positioneal uncertainty of the source digital files relative to the published geologic maps, the spatial accuracy of this New England Lithology compilation is estimated as 1.5 km.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: John B. Lyons
Originator: Wallace A. Bothner
Originator: Robert H. Moench
Originator: James B. Thompson Jr.
Publication_Date: (unpublished)
Title: Digital bedrock geologic map of New Hampshire
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Source_Scale_Denominator: 250000
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1997
Source_Currentness_Reference: date data were provided
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: NHBedrock
Source_Contribution:
Provided internal line work and initial polygon attribute data for New Hampshire.
Digitizing was performed at the Complex Systems Research Center, University of New Hampshire, from the Bedrock geologic map of New Hampshire (Lyons and others, 1997).
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Osberg, P.H.
Originator: Hussey, A.M. II
Originator: Boone, G.M.
Publication_Date: 1985
Title: Bedrock geologic map of Maine
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Augusta, Maine
Publisher: Maine Geological Survey
Source_Scale_Denominator: 500000
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: MEBedrock
Source_Contribution:
Provided internal line work and initial polygon attribute data for Maine.
Digitized from the Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine (Osberg and others, 1985). This coverage contains statewide bedrock geology map units and major faults as mapped by the Maine Geologic Survey (MGS).
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Osberg, P.H.
Originator: Hussey, A.M. II
Originator: Boone, G.M.
Publication_Date: 1985
Title:
Bedrock geologic map of Maine: Generalized regional metamorphic zones
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Augusta, Maine
Publisher: Maine Geological Survey
Source_Scale_Denominator: 1600000
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Maine metamorphic data
Source_Contribution:
Provided internal line work and initial polygon attribute data for metamorphic zones in Maine.
Digitized from the Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine (Osberg and others, 1985). This coverage contains generalized regional metamorphic zones as mapped by the Maine Geologic Survey (MGS).
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Rogers, John (compiler)
Publication_Date: 1985
Title: Bedrock geological map of Connecticut
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Publication_Information:
Publisher: Connecticut Geologic and Natural History Survey
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Natural Resource Atlas Map Series
Source_Scale_Denominator: 125000
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1985
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: CTBedrock
Source_Contribution:
Provided internal line work and initial polygon attribute data for Connecticut.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Zen, E-an
Originator: Goldsmith, G. Richard
Originator: Ratcliffe, N.L.
Originator: Robinson, Peter
Originator: Stanley, R.S.
Originator: Hatch, N.L.
Originator: Shride, A.F.
Originator: Weed, E.G.A.
Originator: Wones, D.R.
Publication_Date: 1983
Title: Bedrock geologic map of Massachusetts
Publication_Information:
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Source_Scale_Denominator: 250000
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1983
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: MABedrock
Source_Contribution:
Provided internal line work and initial polygon attribute data.
Rudolph Hon digitized from the Bedrock geologic map of Massachusetts (Zen and others, 1983) under the direction of Rudolph Hon (Department of Geology, Boston College) as part of a project funded by the Massachusetts Highway Department.
Rudolph Hon provided reference to correct registration problems in the bedrock polygon lines in MABedrock.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Hermes, O.D.
Originator: Gromet, L.P.
Originator: Murray, D.P
Originator: N.A. Hamidzada
Originator: J.W. Skehan
Originator: S. Mosher
Publication_Date: 1994
Title: Bedrock geologic map of Rhode Island
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Rhode Island map series
Issue_Identification: 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Kingston, Rhode Island
Publisher: University of Rhode Island
Source_Scale_Denominator: 100000
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1994
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: RIBedrock
Source_Contribution:
Provided internal linework and initial polygon attribute data for Rhode Island.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Doll, G.C. (editor and compiler)
Originator: Cady, W.M. (editor and compiler)
Originator: Thompson, J.B. Jr. (editor and compiler)
Originator: Billings, M.P. (editor and compiler)
Title: Centennial geologic map of Vermont
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Montpelier, VT
Source_Scale_Denominator: 250000
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: VTBedrock
Source_Contribution: Information about Vermont
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Digital versions of the state geologic maps were obtained from the originators or authors for Maine (Marc Loiselle, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, ME), New Hampshire (U.S. Geological Survey), Rhode Island (N. Hamidzeda, University of Rhode Island, Department of Geology, Kingston, RI), and Massachusetts, (Rudolph Hon, Department of Geology, Boston College). The bedrock polylines of Connecticut were pieced together from two digital sources; the Bedrock Geologic map of Rhode Island (which shows a buffer of the adjacent state bedrock units) and the Bedrock Geologic map of Connecticut. Hence some of the bedrock line work and geologic names in Connecticut are from the Bedrock Geologic map of Rhode Island.
Process_Date: 1997
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The original digital state bedrock data layers were combined into one study-unit wide data layer using the ARC/INFO MAPJOIN command. The individual coverages did not match perfectly at the state borders, so the resulting sliver polygons had to be deleted.
Process_Date: 1997-2001
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
A lithogeochemical unit, lithology code, modifier code, major group code, and state abbreviation were added as attributes to each bedrock polygon present in the digital state geologic maps. The statewide data layers were then clipped and mapjoined to create a data layer for the NECB study unit. State boundaries were maintained in the combined data layer.
Process_Date: 1997-2001
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The original source data (MABedrock) for the Massachusetts portion of this data layer contained some georeferencing problems, which caused the arcs to display generally southwest of their true locations, although the direction and distance of the shift was not uniform across the state. Rudolph Hon developed a method of re-registering the scanned image of the paper map (Zen and others, 1983) based on thousands of control points from USGS topographic maps, and digitized the bedrock polygons again. This updated digital version of the Massachusetts bedrock was obtained from the Eastern Mineral Resources Team (USGS - Reston, Virginia) and showed improved horizontal accuracy. Arcs from this updated bedrock coverage were used as locational reference for the Massachusetts linework in the NECB lithogeochemical coverage and the original lithogeochemical label points with attributes were retained and shifted to match the newly located polygons. Arcs near the state and study unit boundaries were edited exactly to meet the borders, and other minor corrections to linework and labels were made.
Process_Date: 2001
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
NECB metadata created using FGDCMETA.AML ver. 1.35 08/02/2000 on ARC/INFO data set.
Process_Date: 2000-2001
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The CONN and NECB data sets were combined using mapjoin functions in ARC/INFO. Attributes for the NECB coverage were edited to create a uniform attribute table (the CONN attribute format was edited to follow the NECB attribute format). The NECB data set used in the join was an earlier version without the corrected work done in Massachusetts, so the horizontal accuracy of the coverage was in need of improvement again in a section of Massachusetts.
Process_Date: 2000-2001
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The georeferencing issue of Massachusetts was addressed for the combined CONN/NECB data set by replacing the shifted portion of the Massachussetts linework with the re-registered linework from the corrected NECB data set. Bedrock polygons of Massachusetts starting at and to the east of the western border of the Mesozoic Basin were deleted and replaced with the re- registered polygons of the NECB data set, using ARC/INFO map join and editing features. Original arcs that were shared boundaries between Massachusetts and other states were saved in the combined coverage.
Process_Date: 2002
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
A small section of western Massachusetts and three small missing portions of western Connecticut (along the northwest border) that had been lost at some point in the combination of the data sets were added from the original CONN data set using ARC/INFO map join. Polygons located in Canada and New York were removed from the data set to limit the New England coverage to six states (Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont).
Process_Date: 2002
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Additional edits were made to the attributes of the New England data set using the paper copies state geologic maps (those mentioned above as references for all digital CONN and NECB data sets) for lithological information. Additional attributes (such as province groups) were added based on research needs. All edits to attributes were reviewed by Gilpin R. Robinson, Jr., an originator of the data set.
Process_Date: 2002-2003
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Metadata from the CONN and NECB data sets was combined and revised in html and .pdf format.
Process_Date: 2002-2003
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
State border polygon discrepancies that could be addressed were edited by correcting cross-border line shifts with new linework.
Process_Date: 2003
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The finalized coverage and metadata were reviewed by Laura Hayes (U.S. Geological Survey, Pembroke, New Hampshire); small edits to the metadata and attribute table were made.
Process_Date: 2003
Process_Step:
Process_Description: Creation of original metadata record
Process_Date: 20090629
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Gilpin R Robinson
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey, ER
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
Mail Stop 954
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-6113
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703-648-6383
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: grobinso@usgs.gov
Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Vector
Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927
Ellipsoid_Name: GRS1980
Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.4
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.98
Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
The thirty-seven lithogeochemical units are defined for the New England study region using an alpha-numeric identification: a lithology code ("Litho_code", numeric) with a modifier code ("Lith_mod", alphabetic).
Example: Litho_code= "33" and Lith_mod= "cs" Lithogeochemical unit is expressed as "33cs"
There are 20 lithology codes (including a code for water) that represent rock type, metamorphic grade, and geologic setting. Each bedrock unit is assigned one of 20 lithology codes based on the description of the bedrock unit from the state bedrock geologic maps. Nine lithological modifier codes are used to identify minor amounts of carbonate or sulfide minerals, and subdivide granitic units into subgroups based on their chemical and mineral characteristics.
The 37 lithogeochemical units are generalized into major rock group categories (Rock_GpA and Rock_GpB). Each category under these headings shares similarities in overall geochemistry and lithology. Rock Group A ("Rock_gpA") has 8 categories (including one for freshwater).
Bedrock lithology information was obtained from separate state source maps, and this results in some discrepancies in rock group categories between polygons that meet at state boundaries. For example, a bedrock polygon that is split into two polygons by a state border may be be categorized as "Metamorphic Rocks Undivided" in one state and "Carbonate Rocks" in the other state, based upon the different characterization methods used by the originators of each of the state geologic maps. However, these discrepancies are relatively few and do not interfere with the overall lithologic patterns of the New England study area.
The eight major groups for Rock Group A are further divided into Rock Group B. Rock Group B ("Rock_GpB") has 19 categories (including one for freshwater). Each category has an ID code ("R_GpB_ID") that is used as a cross reference to other tabled information.
Individual bedrock unit codes are designated by state from the original state geologic maps used to create the digital coverage (see references for source maps). Names and descriptions for each bedrock code were gathered from source maps and are provided in the associated file Bedrock.dbf. The "Bedrock_1" attribute describes the alphanumeric code given to bedrock units in the original state map sources (for example, "Trnh" or "Dw3A"). Some units have been combined (example "O-cr+O-cra") during the digitizing process. "Bedrock_2" may further designate a polygon as "water" if appropriate, but for polygons not water bodies "Bedrock_2" is the same as "Bedrock_1".
The bedrock units shown on the individual state maps for the New England study region were classified according to a lithogeochemical scheme modified from Robinson and others (1999). Specifically, the modification included additional classification into broad rock groups and the subdivision of granitic bedrock units into subgroups based on age and magma chemistry, and the addition of modifying attributes to indicate relative age. However, this modification to the classification system is evident in the lithogeochemical units.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
A detailed listing and descriptions of the 37 lithogeochemical units is provided in http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-225/unit-description.html
Relationships among rock groups and between rock groups and lithogeochemical units are shown in http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-225/rock-groups.html
More detailed descriptions of each bedrock unit (grouped by the state in which they occur) are provided in http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-225/bedrock.dbf
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: ne_lith.dbf
Entity_Type_Definition:
Polygonal map units define bedrock areas with similar lithologic and geochemical properties.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: State
Attribute_Definition:
This item identifies the state locations of polygons. Because the lithogeochemical characterization was derived from information on the state geological map, the state is associated with each polygon to help identify of source of the geologic information.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CT
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Connecticut
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: MA
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Massachusetts
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: ME
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Maine
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: NH
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: New Hampshire
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: RI
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Rhode Island
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: VT
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Vermont
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Hydro_Bsn
Attribute_Definition:
The coverage is divided by drainage basins based on the USGS National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study areas CONN and NECB. NAWQA program information can be accessed at
http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/studyu.html
For purposes of focusing on the area of New England in this coverage, two new drainage areas have been added to the coverage: Northern Maine (N_MAINE) and St. Lawrence/Hudson River (STL_HUD) drainage areas. The N_MAINE drainage area covers the area in Maine not included in the NECB study area. The STL_HUD drainage area combines the small portion of the NAWQA Hudson River basin included in this coverage, and the area of northern Vermont not included in a NAWQA study area.
Attribute_Definition_Source: National Water Quality Assessment Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: NECB
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: New England Coastal Basin
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: U.S. Geological Survey
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CONN
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: U.S. Geological Survey
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: STL_HUD
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: St. Lawrence-Hudson River Basins
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: U.S. Geological Survey
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: N_MAINE
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Northern Maine
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: U.S. Geological Survey
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: G_Province
Attribute_Definition:
The bedrock units shown on the individual state maps for the New England study area have been grouped into 10 geologic provinces. The map units in each province group share common features of lithology, age of formation, geologic setting, and tectonic history. The province groups generally occur as northeast-trending belts that follow the structural fabric of the Appalachian foldbelt and faults in New England.
The tectonic map features contained with the state-level bedrock geologic maps and the grouping of bedrock map units by geologic belts in the legends of the state-level bedrock geologic maps were used to define province attributes.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Avalon Belt
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Avalon Belt terrane, Avalon Province
Localized in eastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and coastal Connecticut. Principally Precambrian Z granite and granitic gneiss and metasedimentary rocks of Precambrian Z to Ordovician age. Intruded by Ordovician to Devonian granites. Cretaceous sediments and thick areas of Quaternary glacial sediments occur in southern coastal areas.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Bronson Hill Sequence
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Bronson Hill Sequence terrane
Triassic to Jurassic age sediments and basalt flows deposited in localized rift basins in from Connecticut to western New Hampshire and northern Maine. Principally Ordovician igneous and metavolcanic rocks overlain by Ordovician to Devonian metasedimentary rocks. Sulfidic schists and mafic rocks are common. Intruded by Devonian granites.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Coastal Maine
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Coastal Maine terrane
Localized along northeastern coastal Maine. Principally PreCambrian Z to Silurian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks intruded by Devonian granites.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Eugeosyncline Sequence
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Eugeosyncline Sequence terrane
Includes slates and pelitic metamorphic rocks in the Taconic Range and schists east of the Grenville Belt. Principally Cambrian to Ordovician pelitic metasedimentary rocks, including metavolcanic layers and lenses of ultramafic rocks.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Grenville Belt
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Grenville Belt terrane
Includes areas of Grenville Basement (PreCambrian Y metamorphic rocks) in western Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont. Principally granitic gneiss and metasedimentary rocks. Includes some Cambrian metasedimentary rocks deposited on Precambrian basement.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Grenville Shelf Sequence
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Grenville Shelf Sequence terrane
Principally carbonate rocks and other metasedimentary rocks deposited in a carbonate shelf sequence overlying Grenville basement in western Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Mesozoic Basin
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Mesozoic Basin terrane
Triassic to Jurassic age sediments and basalt flows deposited in localized rift basins in central Connecticut and Massachusetts. Intruded by Jurassic diabase and basalt dikes.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: NH - Maine Sequence
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
NH-ME terrane, New Hampshire-Maine Sequence
Covers eastern Connecticut, central Massachusetts, eastern New Hampshire, and central Maine. Principally Silurodevonian metasedimentary rocks and Silurodevonian and younger igneous rocks, principally granite.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Narragansett Basin
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Narragansett basin terrane
Permian conglomerates and other sediments deposited in fault-bounded basins in Avalon province rocks in southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Waits River-Gile Mt. S
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Waits River Gile Mt. Sequence terrane
Principally Devonian variably-calcareous metasedimentary rocks in eastern Vermont and the northern Connecticut valley in Massachusetts, intruded by Devonian granite.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: G_Prov_id
Attribute_Definition: A one- or two-letter abbreviation for the geologic provinces.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: B
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Bronson Hill Sequence
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: C
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Waits River-Gile Mt. Sequence
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CM
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Coastal Maine
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: H
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Eugeosyncline Sequence
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: M
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: NH - Maine Sequence
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: N
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Mesozoic Basin
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: NB
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Narragansett basin
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: S
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Grenville Shelf Sequence
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Y
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Grenville Belt
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Z
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Avalon Province
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Rock_GpA
Attribute_Definition:
A broad categorization of lithogeochemical units. Each category under these headings shares similarities in overall geochemistry and lithology.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Basin Sedimentary
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sediments deposited in fault-bounded basins of Permian and younger age.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Calcpelite
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Calcareous clastic and metaclastic rocks containing approximately 15-45% carbonate minerals.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Carbonate Rocks
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
General rock composition carbonate rock, includes limestone, dolomite, and marble with mixed calc-silicate rocks.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Granites
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: General rock composition granite.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Mafic Rocks
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
General rock composition mafic igneous rocks and their metamorphic equivalents.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Metamorphic Rocks Undivi
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Metamorphic rocks other than carbonate rocks, calcpelite, or mafic rocks.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Unconsolidated Sediments
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Unconsolidated or poorly consolidated sediments of tertiary and younger age.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Water
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Inland freshwater body
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Rock_GpB
Attribute_Definition:
Further subdivides the broad categories of lithgeochemical units defined by Rock_GpA.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Alkali Granite (White Mt)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Alkali granites associated with the White Mountain Plutonic-Volcanic suite (Lyons and others, 1997. Includes granitic rocks in the New England-Quebec and White Mountain igneous provinces of McHone and Butler (1984).
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Avalon Granite
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Granite of Precambrian Z age in the Avalon province.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Basalts
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Basalts.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Calcpelite
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Calcareous clastic and metaclastic rocks containing Approximately 15-45% carbonate minerals.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Calcgranofels
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Fine-grained calcareous clastic and metaclastic rocks containing calc-silicate minerals. May contain a small percentage of carbonate minerals.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Carbonate rocks
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
General rock composition carbonate rock, includes limestone, dolomite, and marble with mixed calc-silicate rocks.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Felsic Volcanics
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Felsic volcanic rocks and mixed volcanic rocks where felsic volcanics predominate.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Granite, other
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Granite, other than types listed below.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Grenville Granite
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Granite of the Precambrian Y age in Grenville basement rocks.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Mafic Rocks
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Mafic igneous rocks and their metamorphic equivalents.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Mesozoic Basin Sediments
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Triassic-Jurassic continental sediments deposited in rift basins of Mesozoic age.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Metamorphic Rocks Undivi
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Metamorphic rocks other than carbonate rocks, calpelite, calcgranofels, pelitic rocks, sulfidic schists, or mafic rocks.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Narragansett Basin Sediment
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Permian continental sediments deposited in fault-bounded Permian basin.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Pelitic Rocks
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Pelitic rocks and interbedded pelitic and sandy sediments and their metamorphic equivalents.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Peraluminous granite
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Granite types containing primary muscovite, of Late Devonian to Carboniferous age.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Sulfidic Schists
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Metamorphosed pelitic rocks containing sufficient pyrite and(or) pyrrhotite to develop a rusty-weathering characteristic.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Ultramafic Rocks
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Serpentine, dunite, and other ultramafic rocks.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Unconsolidated Sediments
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Unconsolidated and poorly consolidated sediments of tertiary or younger age.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Water
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Inland bodies of fresh water.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: R_GpB_id
Attribute_Definition: Numerical code for Rock_GpB values.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 0
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Inland body of fresh water
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 1
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Carbonate rocks
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 10
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Calcpelite
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 11
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Calcgranofels
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 20
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Mesozoic basin sediments
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 21
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Narragansett basin sediments
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 3
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Metamorphic rocks, undivided
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 30
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Pelitic rocks
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 31
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Sulfidic schists
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 4
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Mafic rocks
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 41
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Basalts
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 5
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Ultramafic rocks
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 6
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Granite, other
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 60
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Felsic volcanics
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 61
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Grenville granites
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 62
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Avalon granites
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 63
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Peraluminous granites
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 64
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Alkali granite (White Mt)
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 7
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Unconsolidated sediments
This includes both non-consolidated and poorly consolidated sediments, and encompasses areas in the south-coastal part of the New England study area where the bedrock is overlain by thick glacial sediments at the surface. These surficial glacial deposits are the primary aquifer for these areas.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Litho_code
Attribute_Definition:
Lithogeochemical classification code, developed for this data set. Field is defined as double (width 16, 3 digits to right of the decimal) but all values are integer.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: -9999
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: (surface water body)
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 11
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
limestone, dolomite, and carbonate-rich clastic rocks; may include fine-grained non-calcareous clastic rocks
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 12
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: marble; may include some calc-silicate rock
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 13
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
calcareous clastic and metaclastic rocks containing approximately 15 to 45% carbonate minerals
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 21
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
tan and red mudstone and shale; may include sandstone; locally contains minor carbonate or gypsum
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 22
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
interbedded mudstone, shale, and siltstone; may contain sandstone
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 23
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
sandstone and interbedded sandstone and conglomerate; may contain siltstone, shale, and mudstone
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 31
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: slate and graywacke
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 32
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: pelitic schist and phyllite, may include granofels
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 33
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: mixed schist, granofels; and gneiss
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 34
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
quartzose metasandstone, quartzite, quartz granofels, and quartzose gneiss
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 41
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: basalt
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 42
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
greenstone, lower greenschist facies metabasalt, and schistose mafic rock with minor dispersed carbonate (Mg-rich)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 43
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
amphibolite and layered mafic gneiss; may be mixed with other lesser lithologies such as felsic volcanics and metaclastic rocks
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 44
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
massive mafic rocks; includes gabbro, diorite, monzodiorite, and diabase
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 45
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: mafic gneiss
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 50
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
ultramafic rocks; includes serpentinites, dunites, peridotites, and tremolite-talc schists associated with other ultramafic rocks
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 61
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
granitoid rocks; includes granite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite, trondhjemite, and equivalent gneiss
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 62
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
quartz-poor plutonic rocks; includes syenite, monzonite, quartz syenite, and anorthosite
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 70
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
nepheline syenite; includes feldspathoid-bearing syenitic rocks and volcanic rocks
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: USGS Open-File Report 97-154
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Lith_mod
Attribute_Definition:
Lithogeochemical classification code, developed for this data set that further subdivides the lithogeochemial groups based on the presence of carbonate and(or) sulfide mineral or on the relative age of the bedrock unit.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: u
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: unit is undifferentiated
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: c
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
unit may contain small or variable amounts of carbonate minerals
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: cs
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
unit may contain small or variable amounts of carbonate minerals and minor amounts of pyrite, pyrrhotite, or both
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: g
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: unit contains variable amounts of graphite or organic materials
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: gc
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
unit may contain variable amounts of carbonate minerals and organic materials
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: gs
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
unit may contain minor amounts of pyrite, pyrrhotite, or organic materials, sufficient to cause a rusty-weathering characteristic.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: s
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: unit may contain minor amounts of pyrite, pyrrhotite, or both
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: v
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: felsic volcanics associated within granite intrusions
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: n
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: nepheline-bearing syenite
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Bedrock_1
Attribute_Definition:
Bedrock Unit label appearing on the state geologic map used as the source for the lithogeochemical categorization.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Codeset_Domain:
Codeset_Name: Lithologic units from state maps
Codeset_Source: File Bedrock.dbf in this data set
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Bedrock_2
Attribute_Definition:
Bedrock unit codes characterized by state and including value for water bodies. Except for surface waters, this field is the same as Bedrock_1.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Codeset_Domain:
Codeset_Name: Lithologic units from state maps
Codeset_Source: File Bedrock.dbf in this data set
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Water
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Inland freshwater body
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: X_COORD
Attribute_Definition: X coordinate of polygon label point in Albers projection
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -226338.73438
Range_Domain_Maximum: 317584.70835
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Y_COORD
Attribute_Definition: Y coordinate of polygon label point in Albers projection
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 2002056.5
Range_Domain_Maximum: 2719492.875
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Katherine E Kapo
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Minerals Resources Team
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
Mail Stop 954
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-6103
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648-6252
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: kkapo@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: USGS Open-File Report 03-225
Distribution_Liability:
Although these data have been used by the U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey as to the accuracy of the data.
The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of this data, software, or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ARCE
Format_Version_Number: 8.3
Format_Information_Content: Lithogeochemical units and geologic provinces
File_Decompression_Technique: unzip
Transfer_Size: 14
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Shapefile
Format_Version_Number: 1.0
Format_Information_Content: Lithogeochemical units and geologic provinces
File_Decompression_Technique: unzip
Transfer_Size: 14
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Fees: none
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20150204
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Peter N Schweitzer
Contact_Organization: USGS Midwest Area
Contact_Position:
Collection manager, USGS Geoscience Data Clearinghouse, http://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
Mail Stop 954
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192-0002
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-6533
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703-648-6252
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pschweitzer@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints: none

This page is <https://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/metadata/open-file/03-225/metadata.html>
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