Map showing inventory and regional susceptibility for Holocene debris flows and related fast moving landslides in the conterminous United States: Raster data

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Originator: Brabb, E.E.
Originator: Colgan, J.P.
Originator: Best, T.C.
Publication_Date: 1999
Map showing inventory and regional susceptibility for Holocene debris flows and related fast moving landslides in the conterminous United States: Raster data
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map
Issue_Identification: 2329
Publication_Place: Menlo Park, CA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Debris flows, debris avalanches, mud flows and lahars are fast-moving landslides that occur in a wide variety of environments throughout the world. They are particularly dangerous to life and property because they move quickly, destroy objects in their paths, and can strike with little warning. The purpose of this map is to show where debris flows have occurred in the conterminous United States and where these slope movements might be expected in the future.
These data are intended for geographic display and analysis at the national level, and for large regional areas. It is not intended for hazard evaluation or other site-specific work, and should not be used for such. It can be used to determine where debris flow processes may be a problem and where additional information and investigation are warranted. Although the digital form of the data removes the constraint imposed by the scale of a paper map, the detail and accuracy inherent in map scale are also present in the digital data. The fact that this database was edited at a scale of 1:2,500,000 means that higher resolution information is not present in the data. Plotting at scales larger than 1:2,500,000 will not yield greater real detail, and it may reveal fine-scale irregularities below the intended resolution of the database. Similarly, where this database is used in combination with other data of higher resolution, the resolution of the combined output will be limited by the lower resolution of these data. No responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data.
(This should ONLY contain information that does not fit in any other section.)
Beginning_Date: 1928
Ending_Date: 1999
All of the data on this map were compiled from reports published or field work conducted after the year 1928.
No distinction was made between debris flow scars, made shortly after the events and debris flow deposits, which may be thousands of years old. We believe that all of the debris flows described in this report formed during the past 10,000 years (Holocene), but some of them could be older.
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Irregular

West_Bounding_Coordinate: 172
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -66
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 72
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 18

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Theme_Keyword: geology
Theme_Keyword: maps and atlases
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Theme_Keyword: landslides
Theme_Keyword: landslide susceptibility assessement
Theme_Keyword: lahars
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: debris flow
Theme_Keyword: mud flow
Theme_Keyword: lahar
Theme_Keyword: debris avalanche
Theme_Keyword: landslide
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions (Federal Information Processing Standard 10-4): Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Place_Keyword: United States
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the Identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the Outlying Areas of The United States, and Associated Areas (Federal Processing Standard 5-2): Washington ,D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology.
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Place_Keyword: Minnesota
Place_Keyword: Mississippi
Place_Keyword: Missouri
Place_Keyword: Montana
Place_Keyword: Nebraska
Place_Keyword: Nevada
Place_Keyword: New Hampshire
Place_Keyword: New Jersey
Place_Keyword: New Mexico
Place_Keyword: New York
Place_Keyword: North Carolina
Place_Keyword: North Dakota
Place_Keyword: Ohio
Place_Keyword: Oklahoma
Place_Keyword: Oregon
Place_Keyword: Pennsylvania
Place_Keyword: Rhode Island
Place_Keyword: South Carolina
Place_Keyword: South Dakota
Place_Keyword: Tennessee
Place_Keyword: Texas
Place_Keyword: Utah
Place_Keyword: Vermont
Place_Keyword: Virginia
Place_Keyword: Washington
Place_Keyword: West Virginia
Place_Keyword: Wisconsin
Place_Keyword: Wyoming
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Theme_Keyword: 1500 - Hazards
Theme_Keyword: 1503 - Landslides
Theme_Keyword: 3220 - Grid
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Place_Keyword: US01 = Alabama
Place_Keyword: US04 = Arizona
Place_Keyword: US05 = Arkansas
Place_Keyword: US06 = California
Place_Keyword: US08 = Colorado
Place_Keyword: US09 = Connecticut
Place_Keyword: US10 = Delaware
Place_Keyword: US11 = District of Columbia
Place_Keyword: US12 = Florida
Place_Keyword: US13 = Georgia
Place_Keyword: US16 = Idaho
Place_Keyword: US17 = Illinois
Place_Keyword: US18 = Indiana
Place_Keyword: US19 = Iowa
Place_Keyword: US20 = Kansas
Place_Keyword: US21 = Kentucky
Place_Keyword: US22 = Louisiana
Place_Keyword: US23 = Maine
Place_Keyword: US24 = Maryland
Place_Keyword: US25 = Massachusetts
Place_Keyword: US26 = Michigan
Place_Keyword: US27 = Minnesota
Place_Keyword: US28 = Mississippi
Place_Keyword: US29 = Missouri
Place_Keyword: US30 = Montana
Place_Keyword: US31 = Nebraska
Place_Keyword: US32 = Nevada
Place_Keyword: US33 = New Hampshire
Place_Keyword: US34 = New Jersey
Place_Keyword: US35 = New Mexico
Place_Keyword: US36 = New York
Place_Keyword: US37 = North Carolina
Place_Keyword: US38 = North Dakota
Place_Keyword: US39 = Ohio
Place_Keyword: US40 = Oklahoma
Place_Keyword: US41 = Oregon
Place_Keyword: US42 = Pennsylvania
Place_Keyword: US44 = Rhode Island
Place_Keyword: US45 = South Carolina
Place_Keyword: US46 = South Dakota
Place_Keyword: US47 = Tennessee
Place_Keyword: US48 = Texas
Place_Keyword: US49 = Utah
Place_Keyword: US50 = Vermont
Place_Keyword: US51 = Virginia
Place_Keyword: US53 = Washington
Place_Keyword: US54 = West Virginia
Place_Keyword: US55 = Wisconsin
Place_Keyword: US56 = Wyoming
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Theme_Keyword: geology
Theme_Keyword: thematic maps
Theme_Keyword: landslides
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Categories
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Access_Constraints: None
None. Acknowledgment of the National Atlas of the United States of America and (or) the U.S. Geological Survey would be appreciated in products derived from these data.
Contact_Person: Steve Kambly
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 561 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-5094
We are grateful to several state geologists and members of their staff who kindly reviewed a preliminary copy of the map and the bibliography and provided new information. We are particularly grateful to M. Lee Allison, State Geologist for Utah, and members of his staff who contributed a digital database of debris flow locations for Utah. We also wish to thank Stephen Ellen, Russell Campbell, Gerald Wieczorek, and David Howell for their reviews and help during various phases of the work.
The databases in this repot were compiled in ARC/INFO, a commercial Geographic Information System (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California), with version 3.0 of the menu interface ALACARTE (Fitzgibbon and Wentworth, 1991, Fitzgibbon, 1991, Wentworth and Fitzgibbon, 1991). The files are in either GRID (ARC/INFO raster data) format or COVERAGE (ARC/INFO vector data) format. Coverages are stored in uncompressed ARC export format (ARC/INFO version 7.x). ARC/INFO export files (files with the .e00 extension) can be converted into ARC/INFO coverages in ARC/INFO (see below) and can be read by some other Geographic Information Systems, such as MapInfo via ArcLink and ESRI's ArcView (version 1.0 for Windows 3.1 to 3.11 is available for free from ESRI's web site: The digital compilation was done in version 7.0.4 of ARC/INFO with version 3.0 of the menu interface ALACARTE (Fitzgibbon and Wentworth, 1991, Fitzgibbon, 1991, Wentworth and Fitzgibbon, 1991).
No additional checks for topological consistency were performed on this data set.
This data set includes an inventory of debris flows and related fast-moving landslides for the conterminous United States, and a susceptibility map covering the same area. This inventory is up-to-date as of August 1999, but there undoubtedly exists a significant amount of information that is not included in this report.
Originator: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Publication_Date: 1991
Title: United States 30-second DTM
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Type_of_Source_Media: Online
Ending_Date: 1991
Source_Currentness_Reference: 1991
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: DEM
Source_Contribution: Digital elevation values

A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides convenient nationwide data for the preparation of a slope map. The database consists of ground-surface elevations at 30 arc-second (approximately 1 km by 1 km) grid cells. Apparently these data were derived from the Army Map Service 1:250,000 topographic maps. However, several slope maps were prepared from this database using ARC/INFO, a commercial GIS software program. To calculate the slope at each one-kilometer grid cell, the process fits a quadratic surface to the elevation values of a 3 cell by 3 cell box surrounding the grid cell for which the slope is to be calculated. The slope assigned to the middle cell is the maximum slope of the quadratic surface at that point.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: DEM
Process_Date: 1999
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: Slope map

Brabb and others (1989) have discussed several problems with the database. One of these concerns the average value for the slope over a 9km square area. This figure is generally much flatter than the actual value for slopes within the selected area. Map values of one or two degrees may correspond to slopes steeper than the 25- degree value targeted for the susceptibility map. Because of this discrepancy, the map is referred to as a slope index map, giving relative slope rather than actual slope at any specific area. Several slope index maps were prepared to try to find slopes steeper than 25 degrees where debris flows might be expected in the future. The maps were adjusted by trial and error to incorporate the largest number of debris-flow points without including large, gently sloping areas where no debris flows are expected. We eventually adopted a map with a slope index steeper than 3 percent, which includes about 75 percent of the debris flows mapped. Only individual debris-flow locations were used to compute the percentage of debris flows in each slope category, because the locations of debris flows within the polygon areas are too uncertain for this purpose. The other debris flows may occur in areas where more gentle average slopes contain steep slopes of limited extent, such as cliffs along rivers and lakes that are too small to be detected in the one-kilometer grid cell. Alternatively, some features mapped as debris flows may not be debris flows.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Slope map
Process_Date: 1999
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: Susceptibility map

The susceptibility map was combined with a digital shaded-relief map to make the tiff image file for map display. This was done using the grid commands
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Susceptibility map
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: DEM
Process_Date: 1999
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: Shaded-relief susceptibility

Process_Description: Creation of original metadata record
Process_Date: 19990122
Contact_Person: Peg Rawson
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 521 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-4183
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell
Row_Count: 4152
Column_Count: 7230

Map_Projection_Name: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area
Longitude_of_Projection_Center: -100.00
Latitude_of_Projection_Center: 45.00
False_Easting: 0.0
False_Northing: 0.0
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: coordinate pair
Abscissa_Resolution: 1.0
Ordinate_Resolution: 1.0
Planar_Distance_Units: METERS
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: GRS1980
Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.4
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.98

Entity_Type_Label: Debris-flow susceptibility grid cell
Any of the data elements in the debris-flow susceptibility file
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: author
Attribute_Label: Debris-flow susceptibility grid cell value
The value refers to color of the raster cell in the tiff file. The various shades of pink represent areas that are susceptible to debris flows, and the shades of gray represent areas that are likely not at high risk for debris
Attribute_Definition_Source: author
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1
Range_Domain_Maximum: 15

Contact_Organization: USGS Information Services
Address_Type: mailing address
Box 25286
Denver Federal Center
City: Denver
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80225-0046
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 1-888-ASK-USGS
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 303-202-4693
Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey regarding the utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. No responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Format_Name: TIFF
Format_Version_Number: 6
Format_Information_Content: Debris flow inventory points and polygons, shaded relief map
File_Decompression_Technique: unzip
Transfer_Size: 3.6
Fees: none
Metadata_Date: 20150223
Contact_Person: Peter N Schweitzer
Contact_Organization: USGS Midwest Area
Collection manager, USGS Geoscience Data Clearinghouse,
Address_Type: mailing address
Mail Stop 954
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192-0002
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-6533
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703-648-6252
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

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