Evolution of the landscape along the Clear Creek Corridor, Colorado--Urbanization, aggregate mining, and reclamation

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Evolution of the landscape along the Clear Creek Corridor, Colorado--Urbanization, aggregate mining, and reclamation
Abstract:
Prime agricultural land along the Clear Creek floodplain, Colorado, attracted settlement in the 1850's but the demand for sand and gravel for 1900's construction initiated a sequence of events that exceeded previous interests and created the modified landscape and urban ecosystem that exists today. The Clear Creek valley corridor offers a landscape filled with a persistent visible and hidden reminder of it's past use.
The map sheets illustrate the Clear Creek landscape as a series of compositions, both at the macro view (in the spatial context of urban structure and highways from aerial photographs) and micro view (from the civic scale where landscape features like trees, buildings, and sidewalks are included). The large-scale topographic features, such as mountains and terraces, appear "changeless" (they do change over geologic time), while Clear Creek has changed from a wide braided stream to a narrow confined stream. Transportation networks (streets and highways) and spiraling population growth in adjacent cities (from approximately 38,000 people in 1880 to over a million in 1999) form two dominant landscape patterns. Mining and wetland/riparian occupy the smallest amount of land use acres compared to urban, transportation, or water reservoir activities in the Clear Creek aggregate reserve study area.
Four types of reclaimed pits along Clear Creek were determined: water storage facilities, wildlife/greenbelt space, multiple-purpose reservoirs, and "hidden scenery." The latter involves infilling gravel pits (with earth backfill, concrete rubble, or sanitary landfill) and covering the site with light industry or residential housing making the landform hard to detect as a past mine site. Easier to recognize are the strong-edged, rectilinear water reservoirs, reclaimed from off-channel sand and gravel pits that reflect the land survey grid and property boundaries. The general public may not realize softly contoured linear wildlife corridors connecting urban, industrial, and natural space were once mine sites too. Multiple-use water projects from exhausted pits appear to be the new millennium parks, providing water storage, passive recreation, and habitat restoration for the Denver metropolitan area. The public objects to mining yet enjoys the reclaimed mine sites as recreation and wildlife space.
Supplemental_Information: Compilation scale: 1:24,000
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Arbogast, Belinda, Daniel H. Knepper, Jr, Melick, Roger A., and Hickman, John, 2002, Evolution of the landscape along the Clear Creek Corridor, Colorado--Urbanization, aggregate mining, and reclamation: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series Map I-2760, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -105.25
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -104.87
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 39.87
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 39.75
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/imap/i-2760/i-2760_sh1.gif (GIF)
    Reduced-size image of the first map sheet, 360x257 pixels, 62k bytes.
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/imap/i-2760/i-2760_sh2.gif (GIF)
    Reduced-size image of the second map sheet, 360x257 pixels, 69k bytes.
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/imap/i-2760/i-2760_sh1.pdf (PDF)
    Printable representation of map layout, 1.8 megabytes
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/imap/i-2760/i-2760_sh2.pdf (PDF)
    Printable representation of map layout, 2.4 megabytes
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 2002
    Currentness_Reference:
    publication date
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set.
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 13
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: 105.0
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 50
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 50
      Planar coordinates are specified in METERS
      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1927.
      The ellipsoid used is Clarke 1866.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378206.4.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/294.98.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    agg2.dbf
    Stream terrace and flood-plain deposits
    LFUNIT
    ValueDefinition
    F 
    T 
    RCLASS
    ValueDefinition
    1 
    NOTE
    ValueDefinition
    Z 
    COMMENT
    ValueDefinition
    Z 
    RCODE
    ValueDefinition
    F1 
    T1 
    hydro3l.dbf
    Water features as of 1931
    TYPE
    Type of watercourse
    ValueDefinition
    (no value) 
    aqueduct 
    creek 
    hydrol01.dbf
    Water features as of 1901
    hydrop01.dbf
    Water features as of 1901
    TYPE
    Type of water body
    ValueDefinition
    river 
    standing water 
    hydrop94.dbf
    Water features as of 1994
    TYPE
    Type of water body
    ValueDefinition
    aqueduct 
    river 
    springs 
    standing water 
    well or tank 
    pits37pt.dbf
    Point locations of gravel pits 1920-1950
    TYPE
    Commodity type
    ValueDefinition
    gravel 
    pits57pt.dbf
    Point locations of stone quarries, gravel pits, and clay pits 1950-1960
    TYPE
    Commodity type
    ValueDefinition
    clay 
    gravel 
    stone 
    pits67pt.dbf
    Point locations of stone quarries, gravel pits, and clay pits 1960-1990
    TYPE
    Commodity type
    ValueDefinition
    clay 
    gravel 
    stone 
    pits94pt.dbf
    Point locations of quarries, gravel pits, and clay pits 1990-1998
    TYPE
    commodity type
    ValueDefinition
    clay 
    gravel 
    stone 
    pitsum37.dbf
    Sand and gravel pit polygon areas 1920-1950
    pitsum57.dbf
    Sand and gravel pit polygon areas 1950-1960
    pitsum67.dbf
    Sand and gravel pit polygon areas 1960-1990
    pitsum94.dbf
    Sand and gravel pit polygon areas 1990-1998
    rail01.dbf
    Railroads as of 1901
    rail94.dbf
    Railroads as of 1994
    MAJOR1
    ValueDefinition
    3 
    MINOR1
    Range of values
    Minimum:26
    Maximum:630
    Resolution:1
    riparian.dbf
    Extent of riparian habitat
    road01.dbf
    Roads as of 1901
    ID
    ValueDefinition
    0 
    road94.dbf
    Roads as of 1994
    ID
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:15172
    Resolution:1
    MAJOR2
    ValueDefinition
    0 
    3 
    MINOR2
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:22168
    Resolution:1
    MAJOR3
    ValueDefinition
    0 
    3 
    MINOR3
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:22151
    Resolution:1
    ROUTE
    Interstate route numbers
    ValueDefinition
    0 
    25 
    36 
    70 
    76 
    STROUTE
    State route numbers
    ValueDefinition
    0 
    6 
    73 
    93 
    urban01.dbf
    Urban extent in 1901
    ID
    ValueDefinition
    0 
    urban90.dbf
    Urban extent in 1996/1997
    LEVEL1
    ValueDefinition
    Developed 
    LEVEL2
    ValueDefinition
    Residential 
    LEVEL3
    ValueDefinition
    Single-family Residential 
    LEVEL4
    ValueDefinition
    (no value) 
    LEVEL5
    ValueDefinition
    (no value) 
    LULC
    ValueDefinition
    2.11 
    LULC_CODE
    ValueDefinition
    211000 

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Belinda Arbogast
    • Daniel H. Knepper, Jr
    • Roger A. Melick
    • John Hickman
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Belinda Arbogast, Daniel H. Knepper, Jr., Roger A. Melick, and John Hickman
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

Why was the data set created?

With the high demand for Clear Creek water (less than half of the water passing through Golden flows into the South Platte River), high-cost of water rights (in the thousands of dollars per acre-ft), and potential for drought, reclamation of aggregate pits reflects society's values, community traditions, and scientific advances. Since the South Platte River and its other major tributaries are still undergoing this evolutionary process, the results of this investigation may be useful in understanding and planning their future.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    USGS 1974 water data (source 1 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1974, Water resources data for Colorado, Part 1, Surface water records.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    USGS 1901 Denver topo (source 2 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1901, Denver, Colorado, quadrangle map.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 125000
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    USGS 1939 Golden topo (source 3 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1939, Golden, Colorado, quadrangle map, 7.5-minute series.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    USGS 1941 Arvada topo (source 4 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1941, Arvada, Colorado, quadrangle map, 7.5-minute series.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    USGS 1941 Derby topo (source 5 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1941, Derby, Colorado, quadrangle map, 7.5-minute series.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    USGS 1947 Arvada topo (source 6 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1957, Arvada, Colorado, quadrangle map, 7.5-minute series.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    USGS 1957 Commerce City topo (source 7 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1957, Commerce City, Colorado, quadrangle map, 7.5-minute series.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    USGS 1957 Golden topo (source 8 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1957, Golden, Colorado, quadrangle map, 7.5-minute series.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    USGS 1980 Arvada topo (source 9 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1980, Arvada, Colorado, quadrangle map, 7.5-minute series.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    USGS 1980 Commerce City topo (source 10 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1980, Commerce City, Colorado, quadrangle map, 7.5-minute series.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    USGS 1980 Golden topo (source 11 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1980, Golden, Colorado, quadrangle map, 7.5-minute series.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    USGS 1994 Arvada topo (source 12 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1994, Arvada, Colorado, quadrangle map, 7.5-minute series.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    USGS 1994 Commerce City topo (source 13 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1994, Commerce City, Colorado, quadrangle map, 7.5-minute series.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    USGS 1994 Golden topo (source 14 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1994, Golden, Colorado, quadrangle map, 7.5-minute series.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution: Historical data on area geography
    Arbogast and others (2002) (source 15 of 21)
    Hickman, John, 2001, (unpublished mapping).

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    sand and gravel pit locations (known and approximate areal extents)
    Schwochow and others (1974b) (source 16 of 21)
    Schwochow, S.D., Shroba, R.R., and Wicklein, P.C., 1974, Atlas of sand, gravel, and quarry aggregate resources Colorado Front Range Counties, Denver: Colorado Geological Survey Special Publication 5-B.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Cappa, J.A., Hiatt, C.S., Litke, D.W., McCormick, M.L., and Sadlick, Joseph, 2000, Digital representation of the Colorado Geological Survey's Special Publication 5A/5B entitled, "Sand, Gravel, and Quarry Aggregate Resources, Colorado Front Range Counties": U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-9, Colorado Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    In 1973, The Colorado Legislature passed House Bill 1529 which required that natural aggregate resources in the populous counties of the state be identified and mapped. In response to that Bill, the Colorado Geological Survey prepared potential natural aggregate maps for each of 271 1:24,000-scale quadrangles in the Front Range urban corridor and published those maps in Colorado Geological Survey Special Publication 5B. These maps have been digitized by the United States Geological Survey, repackaged into County coverages, and jointly published as a CD-ROM by the Colorado Geological Survey and the USGS as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-9.
    Type_of_Source_Media: digital
    Source_Contribution: sand and gravel resource data
    Argall (1949) (source 17 of 21)
    Argall, G.O., Jr., 1949, Industrial minerals of Colorado: Quarterly of the Colorado School of Mines volume 44 number 2.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Selected industrial mineral data
    CDMG pit and quarry locations (source 18 of 21)
    Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology, 2001, Mined Land Reclamation Board Database, 2001, Historic Pit and Quarry locations.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital database
    Source_Contribution: Selected pit and quarry locations
    USGS LULC data (source 19 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2002, Datasets--Land Use and Land Cover.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital database
    Colorado Division of Wildlife web site (source 20 of 21)
    State of Colorado Division of Wildlife, 2000, Wetland versus Riparian.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution: Riparian data
    USGS DLG data (source 21 of 21)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1990, Large scale digital line graphs for Colorado.

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution: Base map data
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2001 (process 1 of 3)
    Geographic features were digitized from paper topographic maps and incorporated in the database. Data sources used in this process:
    • USGS 1974 water data
    • USGS 1901 Denver topo
    • USGS 1939 Golden topo
    • USGS 1941 Arvada topo
    • USGS 1941 Derby topo
    • USGS 1947 Arvada topo
    • USGS 1957 Commerce City topo
    • USGS 1957 Golden topo
    • USGS 1980 Arvada topo
    • USGS 1980 Commerce City topo
    • USGS 1980 Golden topo
    • USGS 1994 Arvada topo
    • USGS 1994 Commerce City topo
    • USGS 1994 Golden topo
    Date: 2001 (process 2 of 3)
    Base map data, pit and quarry, land use, and riparian areas digitized and combined Data sources used in this process:
    • Arbogast and others (2002)
    • Schwochow and others (1974b)
    • Argall (1949)
    • CDMG pit and quarry locations
    • USGS LULC data
    • Colorado Division of Wildlife web site
    • USGS DLG data
    Date: 23-Jul-2002 (process 3 of 3)
    Creation of original metadata record Person who carried out this activity:
    Belinda Arbogast
    U.S. Geological Survey
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Mail Stop 973
    Box 25046 Denver Federal Center
    Lakewood, CO

    303-236-2495 (voice)
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Data was were downloaded or entered and checked by the physical scientist and GIS operator. The attributes of this geospatial data set consist of text identifiers and numeric codes that indicate the identity of the natural or cultural unit or type of feature, and determine how each feature is colored or symbolized. To check attribute accuracy, a color check plot was visually compared to the physical scientist's original compilation. Discrepancies between the digital geospatial dataset and the original analog compilation were corrected as needed. This map has been thoroughly reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards and stratigraphic nomenclature.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Lines and points were digitized from topographic maps, from annotated aerial photographs, and from scientific literature. Most digitized positions on the map are estimated to have about 50-100 m horizontal accuracy.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Some features were eliminated or generalized. A digital elevation map image is included.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Map elements were visually checked by the GIS operator for overshoots, undershoots, duplicate features, polygon attributes, and other errors. Automated (ARC/INFO) routines were also used to check the databases for polygon label errors, line or point attribution errors, sliver polygons, dangling arcs, intersection errors, and projection information. The map was reviewed by two other scientists for consistency with basic geologic principles and general conformity to USGS mapping standards.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
none. Acknowledgment of the U.S. Geological Survey would be appreciated in products derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey Central Publications Group
    Mail Stop 902
    Box 25046 Denver Federal Center
    Lakewood, CO

    303-236-7431 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Although this digital spatial data has been subjected to rigorous review and is substantially complete, it is released on the condition that neither the USGS nor the United States Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from its authorized or unauthorized use.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 13-Jun-2016
Metadata author:
Peter N Schweitzer
USGS Midwest Area
Collection manager, USGS Geoscience Data Clearinghouse, http://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/
Mail Stop 954
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
Reston, VA
USA

703-648-6533 (voice)
703-648-6252 (FAX)
pschweitzer@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)
Metadata extensions used:

This page is <https://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/metadata/map-i/2760/metadata.faq.html>
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